Advanced Grammar for IELTS: Aspects of cohesion

Advanced Grammar for IELTS: Aspects of cohesion – Diagnose Test, Grammar Explanation & Practice Exercises

A      DIAGNOSTIC TEST: Aspects of cohesion

Rewrite the underlined sections of these sentences to avoid repetition.

Example

The dog winced as its owner kicked the dog once again       => it.

  1. The American woman stepped off the train onto the crowded platform. The American woman was so striking that a hush fell over the people waiting to greet their loved ones.
  2. I really don’t like these modern paintings. I much prefer the paintings over there.
  3. ‘Would you like some of these jelly beans?’ ‘No. thanks. I only like the red jelly beans and there aren’t any left.’
  4. ‘Have you seen Billy. Martin and Greg today?’ ‘Yes. Billy, Martin and Greg were at the coffee bar this morning.’
  5. I’m afraid we didn’t complete the obstacle course as quickly as the other team completed it.
  6. ‘This lecture is really useless. I don’t want to stay any longer.’ ‘No, I don’t want to stay any longer.’
  7. He asked me to give up my day off to help with the stocktaking, and he said he’d pay me extra to give it up.
  8. My boss gave me a totally unexpected pay rise. I’d better thank her for giving me the pay rise.
  9. ‘Do you think that Britain will win the bid to host the next World Cup?’ ‘I certainly hope they don’t win it! It’ll be chaos!’
  10. Ask whether your parents are doing anything this weekend, and if they aren’t doing anything, invite them to our party.

Eight of the sentences below either contain a mistake or could be expressed more concisely. Tick (✓) the two correct sentences, then correct the mistakes.

Example

Nigel coughed nervously and Laura coughed nervously too.

=> … Nigel coughed nervously and so did Laura…….

  1. The best pizzas are not to be found in big, city-centre restaurants but they are to be found in small, backstreet restaurants.
  2. The girls all wanted to watch the video of Romeo and Juliet. The boys weren’t so keen because they didn’t want to watch a romantic film. They were so enthusiastic because they knew that Romeo was Leonardo diCaprio!
  3. ‘Would you like some white wine?’ ‘No, thanks. I prefer red one.’
  4. The people opposite us sniffed at the acrid smell of smoke and so we did
  5. ‘You wanted me to ring you about the arrangements for the wedding.’ ‘So did I.’
  6. Grabbing her bag and snatching the money from the table, Angela ran through the front door and into the waiting taxi
  7. Mervyn Jones failed to complete the 400 metres because tore a muscle in his leg.
  8. ‘Aren’t they meeting us here?’ ‘Well, they must, because they weren’t at home when I rang a few minutes ago.’
  9. ‘Go to the Tate Modern without me. I’m not that interested in it.’ ‘Well, you should be! It’s a great gallery.’
  10. The President was unable to put through all the reforms that he had wanted to put through .

B       GRAMMAR EXPLANATION: Aspects of cohesion

Both spoken and written English use certain devices to keep the meaning clear and to express it more economically. These devices include ways of avoiding repetition, either by choosing alternative (and usually shorter) words and phrases or by missing out words, phrases or clauses. This unit looks at what can be omitted and which words and phrases can be used to substitute for others. In the examples in this unit, bold shows substitute words, and underlining indicates words which have been replaced by substitution. We use < > to show omitted words.

  1. TYPES OF TEXT REFERENCE

1A. Substitution and ellipsis

Substitution and ellipsis are both devices for avoiding the unnecessary repetition of words or phrases in speech or writing. Substitution consists of replacing one word or phrase with another. This is a sentence without substitution:

Labour voted for the proposals and the Liberals voted for the proposals too.

Here is the same sentence with substitution:

Labour voted for the proposals and the Liberals did too.

In ellipsis, we leave out words or phrases altogether:

Mike left at about the same time as Jane <left>.

We can leave out or replace nouns, verbs and entire clauses. The following example uses a pronoun to substitute for resorts, and leaves out the verb phrase “it is found”:

[The best skiing is found not at big resorts but it is found at small resorts.]

The best skiing is found not at big resorts but at small ones.

Verbs and verb phrases are often replaced by a form of the auxiliary do:

‘Hadn’t we better look into the interest rates first?’ ‘It’s OK. I’ve already done it. ’

1B. Using substitution and ellipsis

We usually replace or omit words or phrases which have previously been mentioned:

The managers in our company have often adopted production processes which give rise to unsatisfying jobs because it is cheaper for them to do so.

It is clear that them refers to the managers and do so refers to the phrase have often adopted production processes which give rise to unsatisfying jobs. Referring back in a text to a previously mentioned item is known as ‘anaphoric reference’:

The Museum’s lifelike new dinosaur will surely enhance its status amongst children.

We can use substitution to refer to items mentioned further back than in the same sentence, as long as there is no ambiguity:

She had a vast collection of antique clocks, which she kept in a small room devoted to her hobby. While most of them dated from the Victorian era, she had a few smaller ones which dated back to the early 19th century.

It is clear that them and ones relate to clocks, as there is no other plural noun in the context to which they could refer. We avoid substitution and ellipsis if there is a possible ambiguity, as below, where there are two plural nouns in the first sentence:

She had a vast collection of antique clocks and an equally large collection of Victorian dolls. [She had quite a few from the Victorian era but also some smaller ones from the early 19th century.]

Here, we don’t know whether a few and ones refer to clocks or dolls or to both.

It is also possible to use a substitute word to refer to something later in the sentence This has the effect of creating an atmosphere of suspense and is often used in dramatic or literary language. This is known as ‘cataphoric reference’:

Its eyes glinting like steel and its mouth salivating, the predator prepared to strike .

  1. SUBSTITUTION

2A. Substitution of a noun or noun phrase

The most common substitutes for nouns or noun phrases are pronouns, such as personal pronouns:

John came into the room. He was wearing a light blue silk suit.

Ben and Alice were refreshingly independent of each other. While Ben’s politics were far to the left. Alice made it known that hers were centre right.

We can use the pronouns one/ones (to refer to singular/ plural countable nouns) after adjectives or demonstratives :

I’d like a sweet sherry please and John would like a dry one.

Davis appeared in numerous major films but practically no great ones.

Which colour would you prefer for the bathroom suite, this one or that one?

We don’t use one for uncountable nouns; instead, we omit the noun:

X  I really like sweet sherry but my husband prefers dry one

I really like sweet sherry but my husband prefers dry < sherry >.

We can also use the demonstrative pronouns without one/ ones:

Which colour would you prefer for the bathroom suite, this one or that?

It is possible to respect both your own opinions and those of other people.

It is also possible to replace a noun or noun phrase with a quantifier, e.g. some, all, each, none, either, neither, both, other, a few, enough :

The boys went out night after night and some did not return.

The doctor suggested I should try aspirin or ibuprofen, but neither worked.

2B. Substitution of a verb or verb phrase with do

We can use a form of do to avoid repeating a present or past simple verb:

At the time, they lived very near to where I did.

Using a form of do is particularly common in comparison clauses:

She doesn’t know any more than I do.

He doesn’t help as much as she does.

We also use do to avoid repeating the main verb in coordinate clauses:

Mary sent him a text message and I did too.

Dad never learnt a foreign language and Mum didn’t either.

With coordinate clauses where the action is the same in both, as above, we can also use the inverted pattern so/ neither + do/does/ did + subject:

She really enjoyed the thrill of the open road, and so did her husband.

Dad never learnt to speak any other languages, and neither did Mum.

We use the same pattern with so, not either and neither/ nor to agree with the speaker in short answers:

‘ I saw Jane yesterday.’ ‘Oh, yes, so did I.’

‘ I didn’t have enough money ’. ‘Neither / Nor did I.’/ ‘I didn’t either ‘

We can omit do and use the object pronoun, usually with too, neither, nor, in informal speech:

‘I saw Jane yesterday. ’ Me, too!

‘Julian was at the meeting about the new road scheme yesterday. ‘ Him too?’

‘I didn’t want to go. ’ Me neither’. / ‘Nor me.’

2C. Substitution of a verb or verb phrase with do so/it/ that

We can often use do so/ it / that to replace a verb phrase which describes a single, specific action. In this use, do so tends to be more formal than do it/ that:

Margaret had been trying to pluck up the courage to confront her son about the money, and she was just about to do so/ it when the doorbell rang.

We usually use do it/ that (and not do so) when the subject of the verb changes:

I was unable to contact the barrister about the court appearance.

(Can the clerk do so tomorrow?)        Can the clerk do it/ that tomorrow?

Note: We use that (and not it) to emphasise an action. In this use, we stress that:

‘Why don’t you just lie to him?’ ‘Oh, I couldn’t do that!’ 

We prefer to use do so (and not do it/that) when we are referring to an activity rather than a single, specific action:

Anyone wishing to interrupt with questions should feel free to do so.

When you want to get fit, you should only do so within a planned exercise programme.

We do not usually use do so/ it/ that to replace verbs which refer to events outside our control, e.g. believe, lose, forget. We use do only:

Michael still believes fiercely that no one is evil – just as he did when he was younger.

I always said you’d lose that mobile phone and now you have done!

She told me not to forget the cake in the oven, but I did.

2D. Substitution of a clause

We use verbs like expect/ think/ imagine/ believe with so to express an opinion, belief or intention, without repeating the preceding statement or question. We usually try to avoid using the same verb in the answer:

Do you think WAP phones will ever catch on?’  ‘I think so / I expect so’

I wonder if privatising the post office will make the postal service more efficient.’

‘1 hope so/ I don’t believe so. myself.’

Note: We do not use a that clause after so.

‘Do you know if John is coming this evening?’

X – I think so (that) he is.                     I think so /  I think (that) he is.

To express a negative response, we tend to make the verb negative and use so:

Are you coming to the party tomorrow?’

X ‘ I think not.’ I  don’t think so

It is possible, though archaic, to use these verbs with not to respond in the negative. It is still sometimes used in a formal context:

‘Was the document countersigned by two witnesses?’ ‘I believe not’

An exception to this is hope. We do not use the not … so pattern but use hope not:

‘It’s going to rain!’

X  ‘Oh, I don’t hope so!’          ‘ I  hope not.’

Note: We do not use so or not after expressions of certainty or doubt. We prefer to use it:

‘Do you think it’ll rain?’                                            

X ‘ I’m certain of so.’              ‘I’m certain of it.’

‘Do you think interest rates will go down this month?’          

X ‘ I doubt so.’                         I doubt it’

We use the pronouns it, this or that to refer back to a previous clause:

I forgot his birthday again and he was really upset about it (= forgetting his birthday )

Many of the latest models have been recalled because of a fault in the steering. This has caused embarrassment to the manufacturers.

He really doesn’t know what he’s talking about!’ Oh, why do you say that?’

We substitute if and whether clauses with if so (affirmative) and if not (negative):

Can you check whether that contract has arrived and, if so, send it out to Mr Andrews?

He asked the guests if they wanted an evening meal, and if not, whether he could bring them sandwiches in their rooms.

We can use so at the beginning of a short answer when we agree to a statement with a certain amount of surprise:

‘They’ve put a new statue in front of the palace.’ So they have!’

Note: Be careful not to confuse this use with So did I or I did so.

  1. ELLIPSIS

3A. Omitting a noun/ pronoun

We often omit nouns or pronouns in the second of two coordinate clauses:

Lucy went up to the bar and <she> asked for a coffee.

We were totally exhausted but <we> felt satisfied with our day’s work.

In casual spoken English we can also omit and when the subject is the same:

Sandy was feeling really bored, <and he> didn’t know what to do with all the extra time he’d now got.

Note: We do not leave out pronouns in subordinate clauses:

At night she was so tired that she fell asleep as soon as she got into bed. 

We can omit subject pronouns at the beginning of short sentences in casual English:

< I > Must go now. It’s getting late.

‘Is your brother coming with us?’ ‘< I > Hope not!’

3B. Omitting a verb

We can often omit a verb to avoid repeating it:

She attracts the attention of the local yobbos and he <attracts> the suspicions of the villagers.

Generally we do not omit the auxiliary or modal. Look at this table:

form change example
present/past simple verb omit main verb in and clauses I like John and he < likes > me
auxiliary + main  verb omit main verb He was looking for a job, or at least, he said he was < looking for one>.

Have you seen my glasses?’ ‘Yes. I have <seen them>. They’re here.’

modal + main verb omit main verb I can speak Spanish and Mary can < speak Spanish > too.
compound verb forms omit second/third auxiliary or only the main verb ‘Couldn’t anybody have been warned about the problem?’

Yes, the captain could < have been warned>/ could have <been warned >/ could have been <warned>.’

In coordinate clauses where the second clause is very similar in pattern to the first, we leave out the auxiliary as well:

Since the divorce I’ve lived in London and my husband <has lived> in Cambridge.

Note: We can introduce a new modal in order to add interpretation (in this case deduction) but still not repeat the main verb:

‘Has Mary arrived yet?’ ‘She must have <arrived>. There’s her coat.’

We also omit verbs in comparison clauses as in the table above, but it is possible in comparison clauses to omit auxiliary and modal verbs as well in the subordinate clause:

You look older than my mother < does >.

House prices have dropped much less than share prices <have done>/ have <done>.

Most European teams can now play more interesting football than the British teams <can play >/ can < play >.

I’ve been working here longer than you <have been doing>/ have <been doing> I have been < doing >.

Note: If the comparison clause begins with a pronoun and we omit the verb phrase completely, we use an object pronoun rather than a subject pronoun:

You look older than she does. => You look older than her

3C. Omitting infinitives or wh-clauses

We can omit an infinitive phrase when the meaning is clear:

Ceri had intended to complete the degree after the birth of her child, but she soon realised she wouldn’t be able to <complete it >.

He didn’t win the competition even though he had expected to <win it >.

After most verbs which are followed by to + infinitive, such as ask, forget, promise and want and would like in if or wh- clauses, we can omit to.

‘You don’t have to take the children to the cinema, you know.’ ‘But I promised < to >.’

‘Shall we go to the cinema tonight?’ ’Yes, if you want < to >.’

In questions and embedded questions, we often use the question word only and omit the clause:

‘Dr Angelo said he was going on a call this afternoon.’

‘Did he say where <he was going>?’  ‘No. he didn’t say where.’

C       PRACTICE EXERCISE

Q 1.

There are several substitute words in this text, in bold. Find the word or phrase that each one refers to and write it below. The exercise begins with an example (0).

The clock on the platform was showing midnight as the train drew in. Miriam checked (0) her ticket against the sign on the window, opened the door to Coach H, climbed in and shut (1) it gently behind her.

The train was already reaching (2) its highest speed, thundering across country towards Warsaw, when Miriam dropped (3) her bags in the correct compartment. She thought briefly of the few kilometres already behind her and (4) the many ahead, then she bent to her bags. She lifted the two small (5) ones onto the overhead rack, but the large one was a different matter, so she pulled (6) it close to her seat and sat down.

Alone in the carriage, she contemplated her future. She hadn’t expected (7) this so soon, but the job opportunity in Warsaw had come up unexpectedly. She’d always wanted to return to the city of her birth and (8) that of her parents, but hadn’t thought she would (9) do it within two weeks of leaving college. At first she had discounted the job, so far away from home, and her parents had (10) done so too, but they had all spoken to her prospective employers at length on the phone, after (11) which all (12) their concerns were laid to rest. Miriam closed her eyes and allowed the rhythm of the speeding train to lull her to sleep.

0 her = Miriam

1 it =

2 its =

3 her =

4 the many =

5 ones =

6 it =

7 this =

8 that =

9 do it =

10 done so =

11 which =

12 their =

Q 2.

Complete this dialogue with the correct substitute words. (There may be more than one possibility.)

JENNA Have you seen the new clothes shop in the High Street?

SOPHIE The (1)…….. opposite the station, you mean?

JENNA Yes, that’s right. I went in (2)……….. yesterday. It’s fantastic! It’s full of designer seconds and (3)………….. of them are from really famous fashion designers.

SOPHIE Which (4)…………. ?

JENNA Oh, people like Nicole Farhi.

SOPHIE Wow! I love (5)…………… ! But you said seconds. Is there anything wrong with the clothes?

JENNA I couldn’t find anything wrong with them. I don’t know why these clothes are called seconds sometimes.

SOPHIE No, (6)……….. Did you buy anything?

JENNA No, not yesterday. I tried on a really nice dress but it was a bit tight, so I’m going to lose a bit of weight first.

SOPHIE You’re always saying (7)…………. !

JENNA I know, but this time I’m really going to (8)………….. .Anyway, I said I’d give up smoking last year and I (9)………….. Oh, I nearly forgot. Are you going to the conference next week?

SOPHIE I expect (10)………………  I don’t think I can get out of it.

JENNA Didn’t you say you wanted to get a new suit before           the next conference?

SOPHIE Oh, (11)……………. I did! Perhaps I’ll pop in to the shop at the weekend and see what they’ve got.

JENNA Well, if you (12)………………. give me a ring first. I’ve got some discount vouchers for ten per cent off and I can let you have (13)………………

SOPHIE (14)……………. ‘s really nice of you. OK, I’ll call you Saturday morning if I decide to go there and, if (15)……………….. I’ll see you at the conference.

Q 3.

Cross out the words in these sentences that can be omitted. Cross out as many words as you can.

  1. I told the students they could either take the exam in June or they could take it in December.
  2. We can go to the theatre tonight if you want to go to the theatre.
  3. The children were delighted with the Christmas lights and they wanted to see them turned on again.
  4. Even though it is possible to go skiing in Scotland, the British have always been worse skiers than most Europeans have been.
  5. ‘Why hasn’t the new shopping centre been opened yet?’ But it has been opened.’
  6. ‘Will Julie be going to the club’s New Year’s party this year?’ ‘I think she gets back from holiday on 30th December, so she could be going.’
  7. ‘Is the new restaurant in the High Street open on Sunday evenings?’ ‘I don’t know. It might be open on Sunday evenings. The old one was open on Sunday evenings.’
  8. We haven’t earned any money this summer. I really expected us to earn some.
  9. The young woman plays the violin and her brother plays the cello.
  10. He told me that he was going to leave his wife and I asked him why he was going to leave her.
  11. Baxter’s sick tonight, which is unfortunate as he can play better than all the others can.
  12. We thought that the old woman had been looking after the house, but she can’t have been looking after it as she was in hospital at the time.

Q 4.

Read the following text about the Inuit system of adoption, then complete these two tasks:

A Mark three more omissions with / and write the omitted words. The first omission is given as an example (0).

B Underline eleven more substitute words, then write the words they replace. The first substitution is given as an example (00).

0          The Inuit system of child adoption, although/ archaic, appears much more humane

=> it is

00        than our own in the so-called civilised world, where childless couples must apply

=> system       

1          through faceless agencies for the opportunity to adopt. They must undergo a series of

2          intrusive interviews and examinations and. if successful, will then be put on a waiting

3          list for an unspecified period of time. An Inuit couple wanting to adopt simply makes

4          it known and soon enough they will receive a call from a woman who is prepared to

5          give up her child. This may be because she already has too many children and does

6          not want another one, or the call may come from a relative or friend who wishes to

7          help someone less fortunate than themselves. Traditionally, the couple would be

8          asked if they would like the child and, if so, a simple handover would take place.

9          Today, however, this has been replaced by bureaucracy in the form of civil

10        registration, although the tradition itself has not. It survives even at the end of the

11        twentieth century.

Q 5.

In each of these pairs or groups of sentences, at least one of the choices is correct, and two or three may be. Tick the correct ones.

A He just came in and he sat down without even saying hello.

B He just came in and sat down without even saying hello.

  1. How about packing up now and hitting the beach for an hour?

A Uh no, I don’t really want.

B Uh no, don’t really want to.

C Uh no, I don’t really want to.

  1. Did you know that your son hasn’t been to school for over a week, Mr Greene?

A But that’s impossible! He must!

B But that’s impossible! He must have!

C But that’s impossible! He must have been!

4.

A You play the piano much better than the usual pianist.

B You play the piano much better than the usual pianist plays.

C You play the piano much better than the usual pianist does.

  1. I’ve decided to resign from the drama group.

A Why?

B Why have you decided?

C Why have you decided to do that?

  1. Barbara takes in stray dogs and cats, but she’s much fonder of cats.

A She considers them far too obsequious.

B She considers dogs far too obsequious.

  1. We love going to the Greek islands but we try to avoid …

A the ones that attract the jet set.

B the that attract the jet set.

C those that attract the jet set.

  1. Adults often like hot, spicy food, whereas …

A children usually prefer mild food.

B children usually prefer mild.

C children usually prefer mild one.

  1. All my American friends expected their team to win most of the track medals …

A and we did too.

B and we did it too.

C and we did so too.

  1. Look! Jason can walk on his own!

A Oh, so he can!

B Oh, so can he!

Q 6.

Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space (1-18). Use only one word in each space. In some cases you do not need to add a word at all (write ‘-‘  in these spaces). There are two examples at the beginning (0) and (00).

Have you ever sent an e-mail to a friend from work? Or have you sent a joke one (0)…... to a colleague on the office computer? Well, think again. (00)……This….is exactly what Rupert Beverly and David Pennington (1)……….. and now they wish they hadn’t (2)……..! They were sacked from an engineering company in the north of England for doing just (3)…………..

Hang on – you may think – this is one small company in the UK. But (4) …………. happens not only in less-regulated small companies but in large multinational (5)………. too. Eight sales staff at Cable and Wireless have recently lost (6)……….. jobs after a complaint about an e-mail.

Management claimed that it could have been construed as offensive, and while the sacked workers agreed that perhaps it could (7)……… they insist that (8)………. wasn’t pornography, as they knew it was a sackable offence to download this.

Regulations governing this area vary from country to country: at present the law in the USA allows companies to monitor staff e-mails and while (9)……….. in the UK is currently not so strict, it looks as though it will follow the US model. In Germany, however, the law does not allow ‘spying’ on employees’ personal e-mail, but at least one multinational (10)……… based there is taking advantage of the UK regulations by  sending all e-mails to the UK to be monitored.

Civil rights organisations are concerned that monitoring e-mails infringes personal liberty and that it also undermines trust in the working environment. (11)……….. want management to intercept and monitor e-mails only when (12)………….. necessary, and to be able to prove that (13)………… was indeed necessary to do (14)        ………………..

And what of Rupert and David? Well. (15)……… claim for unfair dismissal was rejected: the tribunal found that the company was within (16)……… rights to sack employees for sending joke e-mails, and also, more worryingly, (17)………. for the time wasted in (18)………….     it. Watch out. Big Brother really is watching you now!

Q 7.

Read this text which has repetition. Correct to improve the style, using substitution and ellipsis.

Most people enjoy listening to music but few people realise the important effects and largely positive effects listening to music can have on us. We know that certain types of music are used to influence our emotions and influence our behaviour. For example, airlines use soothing music before a flight to relax passengers, especially passengers who may feel nervous about flying. You may have noticed how shops often play fast, rousing music (if you haven’t noticed, you probably shop at the more old-fashioned type of store) – playing fast and rousing music tends to make us feel happier and more likely to spend money!

Music is also being used now as a psychiatric therapy. It seems to be particularly useful for eating disorders and addictions, but it is also useful for sufferers of post-traumatic stress syndrome. People attending group therapy sessions are invited to bring along their favourite tracks. Not everyone does, but the people who bring them along play them for the group. Playing them for the group creates a sense of belonging, as well as creating a more relaxed atmosphere for the therapy session.

D       ANSWER KEY FOR DIAGNOSTIC TEST

1          She

2          those/ the ones

3          ones

4          They/ All of them/ They were all

5          did

6          neither do I/ nor do I/ I don’t either/ me neither

7          do so/do it/do that

8          it/that

9          not

10        if not/ if they’re not

11        but they are to be found in small, backstreet restaurants => but in small, backstreet ones

12        They were => The girls were

13        I prefer-red-one– => I prefer red.

14        so-we-did => so did we

15        ‘So did I.’ => ‘So I did.’

16        ✓

17        because tore a muscle  => because he tore a muscle

18        Well, they must => Well, they must be

19        ✓

20        that he had-wanted to put through =>  that he had wanted to

E       ANSWER KEY FOR PRACTICE EXERCISE

Q 1.

1 it = the train door

2 its = the train’s

3 her = Miriam’s

4 the many = kilometres

5 ones = bags

6 it = the large bag

7 this = the job opportunity/ her move to Warsaw

8 that = birth

9 do it = return to Warsaw

10 done so = discounted

11 which = speaking to her prospective employers

12 their = Miriam’s and her parents’

Q 2.

1 one

2 it/ there

3 some/all/ most/many

4 ones

5 her

6 neither/ nor do I

7 that

8 do it

9 did

10 so

11 so

12 do

13 one/some/them

14 That

15 not/ I don’t

 

Q 3.

  1. I told the students they could either take the exam in June or they could take it in December.
  2. We can go to the theatre tonight if you want to go to the theatre.
  3. The children were delighted with the Christmas lights and they wanted to see them turned on again.
  4. Even though it is possible to go skiing in Scotland, the British have always been worse skiers than most Europeans have-been.
  5. ‘Why hasn’t the new shopping centre been opened yet?’ ‘But it has been opened.’
  6. ’Will Julie be going to the club’s New Year’s party this year?’ ‘I think she gets back from holiday on 30th December, so she could be going.’
  7. ‘Is the new restaurant in the High Street open on Sunday evenings?’ ‘I don’t know. It might be open on Sunday evenings. The old one was open on Sunday evenings.’
  8. We haven’t earned any money this summer. I really expected us to earn some.
  9. The young woman plays the violin and her brother plays the cello.
  10. He told me that he was going to leave his wife and I asked him why he was going to leave her.
  11. Baxter’s sick tonight, which is unfortunate as he can play better than all the others can.
  12. We thought that the old woman had been looking after the house, but she can’t have been looking after it as she was in hospital at the time.

Q 4.

A

line 4 – if they are successful; they will then …

line 7 – she does not …

line 12 – has not been replaced

B

line 1 – They = childless couples

line 4 – it = that they want a child

line 4 – they = the couple

line 5 – her = the woman’s; This = that she is prepared to give up her child

line 5 – she = the woman

line 6 – one = child

line 7 – themselves = the person/people willing to give up a child

line 8 – they = the couple

line 8 – if so = if they would like the child

line 9 – this = a simple handover

line 10 – It = the tradition

Q 5.

1 A ✓ B ✓

2 A X  B ✓ C ✓

3 A X  B ✓ C ✓

4 A ✓ B X C✓

5 A ✓ BX C ✓

6 A X  B ✓

7 A ✓ B X C ✓

8 A ✓ B ✓ C X

9 A ✓  B X C X

10 A ✓ B X

Q 6.

1 did

2 –

3 that

4 this

5 ones

6 their

7 –

8 it

9 that

10 –

11 They

12 –

13 it

14 so /it

15 their

16 its

17 –

18 doing

 

Q 7. Sample answer

Most people enjoy listening to music but few realise the important and largely positive effects it can have on us. We know that certain types of music are used to influence our emotions and behaviour. For example, airlines use soothing music before a flight to relax passengers, especially those who may feel nervous about flying. You may have noticed how shops often play fast, rousing music (if you haven’t, you probably shop at the more old-fashioned type of store) – this tends to make us feel happier and more likely to spend money!

Music is also being used now as a psychiatric therapy. It seems to be particularly useful for eating disorders and addictions, but also for sufferers of post-traumatic stress syndrome. People attending group therapy sessions are invited to bring along their favourite tracks. Not everyone does, but those who do (so) play them for the group. This/Doing so creates a sense of belonging, as well as a more relaxed atmosphere for the therapy session.

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Advanced Grammar for IELTS: Aspects of cohesion
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