Environmental Issues in the Developing World

(a) Use one word from the box to fill each gap, 1-18. You should not need to change the form of the correct word. Use each word once only.

capital              disregard         face     lucrative          tusks                premium

trigger              scorn                rung     habitats            plains               poaching

scream             executioner      trophy  limbs                trinkets            verge

It is hardly surprising, in light of their desperation, that the peoples of the developing world who are on the very bottom 1._____________ of the ladder have little time for the conservationists and environmentalists who 2.            _____________ bloody murder at what they perceive to be a total 3. _____________ for the environment in some parts of the “Third World”. And while they – the nature campaigners, that is – have, on the 4. _____________ of it, a very valid point after all, serious, and, in some cases, irrevocable, harm has been done to many precious 5. _____________ and the rare creatures that inhabit same – we must understand that the rules of supply and demand are in play here in the developing world just as much as anywhere else. For example, on the African 6. _____________ , where 7. _____________ is still rife, and in the mountain forests where rogue hunters patrol, ask yourself this; would they bother if there wasn’t a market for their kill? Believe me, for every bull elephant slaughtered for its ivory 8. _____________ , there is a rich, greedy, fat-cat collector ready to pay a 9. _____________to acquire this ‘find’ – in fact, there are probably ten of them. Similarly, for every mountain gorilla murdered, whose dismembered 10. _____________ appear in tourist outlets as so-called ‘ornaments’ – ashtrays and jewellery boxes, if you don’t mind – there has to be a willing buyer; an admirer of these grotesque 11. _____________. And there are plenty of them it turns out. It’s the same principle with rare animal furs and skins; who do you think buys the crocodilian handbag? I doubt the local tribespeople could afford the price tag, don’t you? It is an absolute tragedy that endangered species of animals are being hunted to the 12. _____________ of extinction, of this there can be no doubt. But we must try to understand the reasons why this is happening. The reality is that poaching will continue while it is a 13. _____________ occupation and while the prospects of finding other forms of employment are very poor. Developing nations need our help, not our 14. _____________ . Save that for the few unscrupulous 15. _____________ hunters still out there; rich, spoilt, despicable Western brats who get a kick out of taking aim at some of the world’s most precious and endangered species; it is a good thing for them that we live in a civilised world where the death penalty has, by and large, been removed from the list of possible punishments our courts can hand down. That said, since they have made themselves judge, jury and 16. _____________ for the innocent creatures they have slain, perhaps nothing less than a 17. _____________ sentence would be good enough for these 18. _____________ happy delinquents.

(b) In the context of the above text (a), find a phrase that means the following:

  1. spend more than the market value
  2. on first examination/as it first appears
  3. damage/hurt from which there is no possibility of recovery
  4. about to die out completely
  5. a person who kills game purely for their own entertainment
  6. enjoys using their weapon a lot
  7. in charge of every decision made in an unfair process
  8. complain bitterly and forcefully
  9. at the lowest level of pay or status

(c) Use the words in the box, which are also found in Text (a), to fill the gaps in the text below. Refer to Text (a) to get a sense of meaning in context if necessary. Use each word once only. Pluralise if necessary.

scorn                           rife                   delinquent                     slain
  1. He poured _____________ on the idea that employing poachers as park wardens might actually and yet it seems the initiative has worked very well. Given an alternative form of employment, the poachers have excelled in their new, legitimate work, and are now doing a lot of good.
  2. They buried the_____________ in a large pit; the stench of rotting corpses was foul.
  3. Corruption is _____________ in the current administration and young people are beginning to lose faith in their elected representatives and the political system as a consequence.
  4. These _____________ are good for nothing; they are in and out of jail almost as a hobby.


Environmental Issues in the Developing World


1 rung 2. scream 3. disregard 4. face 5. habitats

6 plains 7. poaching 8. tusks 9. premium 10. limbs

11 trinkets 12. verge 13. lucrative 14. scorn 15. trophy

16 executioner 17. capital 18. trigger


  1. pay a premium
  2. on the face of it
  3. irrevocable harm
  4. to the verge of extinction
  5. trophy hunter
  6. trigger happy
  7. judge, jury and executioner
  8. scream bloody murder
  9. on the bottom rung of the ladder


  1. scorn 2. slain         3. rife          4. delinquents

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