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IELTS Reading Matching Features Example 10
IELTS Reading Matching Features Example 10

IELTS Reading Matching Features Example 10

Wolves, Dogs and Humans

A. There is no doubt that dogs are the oldest of all species tamed by humans and their domestication was based on a mutually beneficial relationship with man. The conventional view is that the domestication of wolves began between 10,000 and 20,000 years ago. However, a recent ground-breaking paper by a group of international geneticists has pushed this date back by a factor of 10. Led by Dr. Robert Wayne, at the University of California, Los Angeles, the team showed that all dog breeds had only one ancestor, the wolf. They did this by analysing the genetic history through the DINA of 162 wolves from around the world and 140 domestic dogs representing 67 breeds. The research also confirms, for the first time, that dogs are descended only from wolves and do not share DNA with coyotes or jackals. The fact that our companionship with dogs now appears to go back at least 100,000 years means that this partnership may have played an important part in the development of human hunting techniques that developed 70,000 to 90,000 years ago. It also may even have affected the brain development in both species. The Australian veterinarian David Paxton suggests that in that period of first contact, people did not so much domesticate wolves as wolves domesticated people.

B. Wolves may have started living at the edge of human settlements as scavengers, eating scraps of food and waste. Some learned to live with human beings in a mutually helpful way and gradually evolved into dogs. According to Dr. Colin Groves, of the Department of Archaeology and Anthropology at Australian National University, early humans came to rely on dogs’ keen ability to hear, smell and see – allowing certain areas of the human brain to shrink in size relative to oilier areas. ‘Dogs acted as human’s alarm systems, trackers and hunting aids, garbage disposal facilities, hot-water bottles and children’s guardians and playmates. Humans provided dogs with food and security. This symbiotic relationship was stable for over 100,000 years and intensified into mutual domestication,’ said Dr. Groves. In his opinion, humans domesticated dogs and dogs domesticated humans. Dr. Groves repealed an assertion made as early as 1914 that humans have some of the same physical characteristics as domesticated animals, the most notable being decreased brain size. The horse experienced a 16 percent reduction in brain size after domestication while pigs’ brains shrank by as much as 34 percent.

Questions 1-5

Match one of the researchers (A-C) to each of the findings (1-5) below.

  1. Dr. Wayne
  2. Dr. Paxton
  3. Dr. Groves
Example  Answer
found the common ancestor of the dog     A
  1. studied the brain size of domesticated animals. 
  2. claims that wolves chose to interact with humans. 
  3. established a new time frame for domestication of wolves. 
  4. believes that dogs and humans domesticated each other. 
  5. studied the DNA of wolves and dogs.

Answers

  1. Dr. Groves
  2.  Dr. Paxton
  3.  Dr. Wayne
  4.  Dr. Groves
  5.  Dr. Wayne

Explanation

For the first question, the answer is in the second para, eleventh line; “Dr. Groves repealed an assertion made as early as 1914 that humans have some of the same physical characteristics as domesticated animals, the most notable being decreased brain size. The horse experienced a 16 percent reduction in brain size after domestication while pigs’ brains shrank by as much as 34 percent.”

For the second question, the answer is in the second para, first line; “Wolves may have started living at the edge of human settlements as scavengers, eating scraps of food and waste. Some learned to live with human beings in a mutually helpful way and gradually evolved into dogs.”

For the third question, the answer is in the first para, second line; “The conventional view is that the domestication of wolves began between 10,000 and 20,000 years ago. However, a recent ground-breaking paper by a group of international geneticists has pushed this date back by a factor of 10.”

For the fourth question, the answer is in the second para, sixth line; “Dogs acted as human’s alarm systems, trackers and hunting aids, garbage disposal facilities, hot-water bottles and children’s guardians and playmates. Humans provided dogs with food and security. This symbiotic relationship was stable for over 100,000 years and intensified into mutual domestication,’ said Dr. Groves.”

For the fifth question, the answer is in the first para, eighth line; “The research also confirms, for the first time, that dogs are descended only from wolves and do not share DNA with coyotes or jackals. The fact that our companionship with dogs now appears to go back at least 100,000 years.”

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Written By

Nafia Zuhana is an experienced content writer and IELTS Trainer. Currently, she is guiding students who are appearing for IELTS General and Academic exams through ieltsmaterial.com. With an 8.5 score herself, she trains and provides test takers with strategies, tips, and nuances on how to crack the IELTS Exam. She holds a degree in Master of Arts – Creative Writing, Oxford Brookes University, UK. She has worked with The Hindu for over a year as an English language trainer.

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