Prepare with the #1 ranked IELTS platform. Buy our:
Band 8+ Video Courses Recent Actual Tests Questions E-books
IELTS Reading Matching Features Example 9
IELTS Reading Matching Features Example 9

IELTS Reading Matching Features Example 9

The Origins Of Laughter

A. There is no doubt that laughing typically involves groups of people. “Laughter evolved as a signal to others — it almost disappears when we are alone,” says Robert Provine, a neuroscientist at the University of Maryland. Provine found that most laughter comes as a polite reaction to everyday remarks such as “see you later”, rather than anything particularly funny. To find the origins of laughter, Provine believes we need to look at play. He points out that the masters of laughing are children, and nowhere is their talent more obvious than in the boisterous antics, and the original context is play. Well-known primate watchers, including Dian Fossey and Jane Goodall, have long argued that chimps laugh while at play. The sound they produce is known as a pant laugh. But after removing the context, the parallel between human laughter and a chimp’s characteristic pant laugh is not so clear. The question is: does this pant laughter have the same source as our own laughter? New research lends weight to the idea that it does. The findings come from Elke Zimmerman, head of the Institute for Zoology in Germany, who compared the sounds made by babies and chimpanzees in response to tickling during the first year of their life. Using sound spectrographs to reveal the pitch and intensity of vocalizations, she discovered that chimp and human baby laughter follow broadly the same pattern.

B. Zimmerman believes the closeness of baby laughter to chimp laughter supports the idea that laughter was around long before humans arrived on the scene. So far, though, the most compelling evidence for laughter beyond primates comes from research done by Jaak Panksepp from Bowling Green State University, Ohio, into the ultrasonic chirps produced by rats during play and in response to tickling. All this still doesn’t answer the question of why we laugh at all. One idea is that laughter and tickling originated as a way of sealing the relationship between mother and child. Another is that the reflex response to tickling is protective, alerting us to the presence of crawling creatures that might harm us or compelling us to defend the parts of our bodies that are most vulnerable in hand-to-hand combat. But the idea that has gained the most popularity in recent years is that laughter in response to tickling is a way for two individuals to signal and test their trust in one another. This hypothesis starts from the observation that although a little tickle can be enjoyable, if it goes on too long it can be torture. By engaging in a bout of tickling, we put ourselves at the mercy of another individual, and laughing is what makes it a reliable signal of trust, according to Tom Flamson, a laughter researcher at the University of California, Los Angeles.

Questions 1-5

Look at the following research findings (Questions 1-5) and the list of people below. Match each finding with the correct person, A, B, C or D. Write the correct letter, A, B, C or D, in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet. 

NB You may use any letter more than once.

  1. Babies and some animals produce laughter which sounds similar.
  2. Primates are not the only animals who produce laughter.
  3. Laughter can be used to show that we feel safe and secure with others.
  4. Most human laughter is not a response to a humorous situation.
  5. Animal laughter evolved before human laughter.

List of people

A Provine

B Zimmerman

C Panksepp

D Flamson

Answers

  1. Zimmerman
  2. Panksepp
  3. Flamson
  4. Provine
  5. Zimmerman

Explanation

The first answer is in the first para, twelfth line; “Using sound spectrographs to reveal the pitch and intensity of vocalizations, she discovered that chimp and human baby laughter follow broadly the same pattern.”

The answer to the second question is in the second para, second line; “So far, though, the most compelling evidence for laughter beyond primates comes from research done by Jaak Panksepp from Bowling Green State University, Ohio”

The third answer is in the second para, tenth line; “But the idea that has gained the most popularity in recent years is that laughter in response to tickling is a way for two individuals to signal and test their trust in one another.”

For the fourth question, the answer is in the first para, third line; “Provine found that most laughter comes as a polite reaction to everyday remarks such as “see you later”, rather than anything particularly funny.”

For the fifth question, the answer can be found in the second para, first line; “Zimmerman believes the closeness of baby laughter to chimp laughter supports the idea that laughter was around long before humans arrived on the scene.”

Also check: 

Written By

Nafia Zuhana is an experienced content writer and IELTS Trainer. Currently, she is guiding students who are appearing for IELTS General and Academic exams through ieltsmaterial.com. With an 8.5 score herself, she trains and provides test takers with strategies, tips, and nuances on how to crack the IELTS Exam. She holds a degree in Master of Arts – Creative Writing, Oxford Brookes University, UK. She has worked with The Hindu for over a year as an English language trainer.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

$18 $37

IELTS Reading (Academic) Actual Tests with Answers (March - June 2021) | eBook

4.8 stars rating

4.8  ( 13 Reviews )

Buy Now

Featured Posts

101 IELTS Academic Reading Past Test Papers with Answers PDF Download
101 IELTS Academic Reading Past Test Papers with Answers PDF Download

"101 IELTS Reading Past Papers With Answers" is a must-have IELTS preparation book for......

42 Topics for IELTS Speaking Part 1 and Suggested Answers (PDF)
42 Topics for IELTS Speaking Part 1 and Suggested Answers (free PDF download)

In the IELTS Speaking Part 1 Section, IELTS examiner will introduce him or herself......

Useful IELTS Reading Articles, Website Resources & Material for Academic & General Training
Useful IELTS Reading Articles, Website Resources & Material for Academic and General Training

IELTS Reading Resources Besides doing exercises from reading practice tests from Cambridge IELTS Series,......

50 Recent IELTS Speaking Topics 2020 Part 2 & 3 with Model Answers
50 Recent IELTS Speaking Topics 2021 Part 2 & 3 with Model Answers

For Band 9 Sample Answers for all Part 1,2,3 topics in 2021, you can......

All Useful IELTS Writing Lessons & Websites
All Useful IELTS Writing Lessons & Websites

This post covers all IELTS Writing lessons on IELTS Material website, including: IELTS Writing......

IELTS Writing Recent Actual Tests in 2018 & Band 8.0+ Sample Answers (Updating)
IELTS Writing Recent Actual Tests in 2018 & Band 8.0+ Sample Answers (Updating)

Read IELTS Writing Actual Tests & Band 8.0+ Samples around the world to be......

IELTS Speaking Lessons
IELTS Speaking Lessons

This post contains useful links to the best IELTS speaking lessons/tips/books/practice tests/actual tests/sample answer...

100 IELTS Speaking Topics Part 1 Questions and Answers 2019
100 IELTS Speaking Topics Part 1 Questions and Answers 2019

IELTS Speaking Part 1 Topics Questions and Answers (Jan -May 2020) Check out the......

IELTS Speaking Part 1 Topics 2020 (Jan - May 2020) & Sample Answers
IELTS Speaking Part 1 Questions with Answers 2020 (Jan – May 2020)

In part 1 of the speaking test, the examiner will introduce himself or herself......

High Scoring IELTS Speaking Model Answers with Audio (Based on Past Papers)
High Scoring IELTS Speaking Model Answers with Audio (Based on Past Papers)

What could be better than preparing yourself for your exam by reading model answers......

IELTS Speaking Part 2 Topics in 2019 & Sample Answers
IELTS Speaking Part 2 Topics in 2019 & Sample Answers

To be well-prepared for IELTS exam (both IELTS Academic & IELTS General Training Module),......

IELTS Magazine - Week 1 (PDF)
IELTS Magazine – Week 1 (PDF)

IELTS Magazine is our brand new project on our official IELTS blog (ieltsmaterial.com), which......

IELTS Speaking Recent Actual Tests (January - April 2021) & Suggested Answers
IELTS Speaking Recent Actual Tests (January – April 2021) & Suggested Answers

IELTS Speaking Test Part 1 Question and Answers In the following page, you will......

150 IELTS Speaking Topics 2020 Part 2 & 3 with Model Answers
150 IELTS Speaking Topics 2020 Part 2 & 3 with Model Answers

Check out the latest IELTS Speaking Part 2 topics 2020 with model answers by......

IELTS General Training Writing Task 2 Sample Questions (2013 - 2020) & Model Answers free PDF download
IELTS General Training Writing Task 2 Sample Questions (2013 – 2020) & Model Answers free PDF download

Though IELTS writing is considered to be difficult for some students, it's helpful to......

Cambridge Practice Tests for IELTS Series (1 - 14) Academic and General Training Student's Book with Answers and Audios
Cambridge Practice Tests for IELTS Series (1 – 14) Academic and General Training Student’s Book with Answers and Audios

Cambridge Practice Tests for IELTS Series (1 - 14), written by experienced IELTS examiners......

Cambridge Practice Tests for IELTS Series (1 - 14) Student's Book with Answers with Audio [Latest Update]
Cambridge Practice Tests for IELTS Series (1 – 14) Student’s Book with Answers with Audio [Latest Update]

Cambridge IELTS 1 - 13 Academic & General Training Student's Book with Answers with......

Ace the IELTS : IELTS General Module - How to Maximize your Score (3rd edition)
Ace the IELTS : IELTS General Module – How to Maximize your Score (3rd edition)

This excellent self-study book for intense IELTS preparation in a few weeks is designed......

Advanced Vocabulary word List for IELTS
Advanced Vocabulary word List for IELTS

Advanced Vocabulary List for IELTS learners to Score Band 7.5 or Higher IELTS vocabulary......

Post Your IELTS Exam Questions
Post Your IELTS Exam Questions

Hi guys, When you were preparing for your IELTS, did you hope someone would......

Do you need help with IELTS Preparation, Enroll for our Master Program:

Enroll for Online Classes