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IELTS Reading Table Completion Example 1
IELTS Reading Table Completion Example 1

IELTS Reading Table Completion Example 1

Tacoma Narrows Bridge – Disaster Strikes

A. When the Tacoma Narrows Bridge opened for traffic on 1 July 1940, it was celebrated as a major engineering achievement. Even before construction was completed, however, flaws in the design were apparent; workers sucked on lemon slices to avoid motion sickness as the structure swayed in the relatively mild winds. Engineers tried three different revisions during construction to address the vibration problem. Shortly after opening, the bridge quickly acquired the fond nickname of “Galloping Gertie” because of the way it would roll in either side-to-side or lengthways movements – known in physics terms as the longitudinal and transverse modes of vibration respectively. These movements did not compromise the core integrity of the structure but did make the crossing of a somewhat white-knuckle affair.

B. Four months later, however, a never-before-seen type of vibration began afflicting the bridge in what were still fairly gentle winds (about 40kmph). Rather than the simple “wave” motion that characterizes longitudinal and transverse vibration, the left side of the bridge would rise while the right side fell, but the centre line of the road would remain completely level. This was proved when two men walked along the centre of the bridge completely unaffected by the rocking motions around them. Visually, the bridge’s movements seemed to be more like a butterfly flapping its wings than a simple rolling motion. Engineers now understand this to be the torsional mode of vibration, and it is extremely hard to detect.

Questions 1-3

Complete the table below. 

Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in blank spaces next to 17-19 on your answer sheet.

Mode of Vibration Description
1……………………… moving repeatedly to the left and right
2……………………… up and down motion; like a wave
Torsional resembling motions of a 3……………….

Answers

  1. Longitudinal
  2. Transverse
  3. Butterfly 

Explanation

For the first question, the answer can be found in the first para; “way, it would roll in either side-to-side or lengthways movements – known in physics terms as the longitudinal and transverse modes of vibration respectively. These movements did not compromise the core.”

For the second question, the answer is available in the first para; “way, it would roll in either side-to-side or lengthways movements – known in physics terms as the longitudinal and transverse modes of vibration respectively. These movements did not compromise the core.”

For the third question, the answer is in the second para; “more like a butterfly flapping its wings than a simple rolling motion. Engineers now understand this to be the torsional mode of vibration, and it is extremely hard to detect.”

Also check: 

Written By

Nafia Zuhana is an experienced content writer and IELTS Trainer. Currently, she is guiding students who are appearing for IELTS General and Academic exams through ieltsmaterial.com. With an 8.5 score herself, she trains and provides test takers with strategies, tips, and nuances on how to crack the IELTS Exam. She holds a degree in Master of Arts – Creative Writing, Oxford Brookes University, UK. She has worked with The Hindu for over a year as an English language trainer.

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