Striking Back at Lightning with Lasers Reading Answers
Answer questions 1-13 based on the reading passage given below.
Striking Back at Lightning with Lasers
The answers to questions 1-13 are given below along with their explanations.
|1||D||In paragraph 2, we get to know how there are tested strategies for ‘neutralising’ (controlling) ‘the power of thunderstorms’, and they are equipped with an armoury of ‘lasers’ that they will be pointing towards the heavens to discharge thunderclouds before lightning can strike. In the remaining paragraphs, this technique is being discussed and various information related to the technique or research is provided. Other than this, there is no mention of the damage caused to US golf courses and golf players by lightning strikes, the effect of lightning on power supplies in the US and in Japan or a variety of methods used in trying to control lightning strikes. Hence, the answer is D (a laser technique used in trying to control lightning strikes).|
|2||A||Paragraph 1 relates that ‘when thunderstorms strike’, their electrical fury causes ‘damage to property’ (buildings) ‘each year’. Hence, the answer is A (does considerable damage to buildings during thunderstorms).|
|3||A||Paragraph 3 mentions that the technique of firing rockets trailing wires into thunderclouds survives to this day at a test site in Florida run by the ‘University of Florida’, with ‘support’ (funding) ‘from the Electrical Power Research Institute’ (EPRI), based in California. Furter, in paragraph 5, it is given that Jean-Claude Diels of the ‘University of New Mexico’ is leading a project, which is ‘backed by EPRI’, to try to use lasers to discharge lightning safely. Therefore, both the universities are backed by the same source, EPRI. Hence, the answer is A (receive funds from the same source).|
|4||Power companies||Paragraph 3 states that ‘Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI)’, based in California. EPRI, which is ‘funded by’ (receives financial support) ‘power companies, is looking at ways to protect the United States’ power grid from lightning strikes. Hence, the answer is ‘power companies’.|
|5||safely||Paragraph 5 tells about a technique or project developed by Diels which is backed by EPRI, to try to use lasers to discharge lightning ‘safely’- and ‘safety is a basic requirement’ which is the advantage of the technique. Hence, the answer is ‘safely’.|
|6||size||Paragraph 7 reveals that there is still a big stumbling block for the technique developed by Diels. The laser is so big that it is like ‘a monster that takes up a whole room’. ‘Diels is trying to cut down the size’ and says that a laser around the size of a small table is in the offing. Therefore, the difficulty is in the size of the laser, hence, the answer is ‘size’.|
|7||B||Paragraph 6 explains that high-powered lasers were revealing their ability to ‘extract’ (removing) ‘electrons out of atoms’ and ‘create ions’ (ionisation). If a laser could generate ‘a line of ionisation’ in the air all the way up to a storm cloud, this conducting path could be used.
Hence, the answer is B (atoms).
|8||C||Paragraph 6 points out that if ‘a laser’ could generate a line of ionisation in the air ‘all the way up to’ (directed) a ‘storm cloud’, this conducting path could be used to guide lightning to Earth, before the electric field becomes strong enough to break down the air in an uncontrollable surge, that is, the electrical charges should be in control.
Hence, the answer is C (storm clouds).
|9||G||In paragraph 4, the author lets out the fact that while ‘rockets’ are fine for research, they ‘cannot provide the protection’ from lightning strikes and asks who would want to fire streams of rockets in a populated area? in the beginning of the fifth paragraph. Later, in the fifth paragraph, he adds that Diels is leading a project, which is backed by EPRI, to try to ‘use lasers to discharge lightning safely’- and ‘safety is a basic requirement’. So, it proves that the method of using lasers is less dangerous than using rockets. Hence, the answer is G (rockets).|
|10||D||Paragraph 6 notes that to ‘stop the laser itself being struck’ (protection for the lasers), it would be ‘directed at’ (aimed at) ‘a mirror’ firstly, and from there into the sky. Hence, the answer is D (mirrors).|
|11||NO||It is given in paragraph 8 that the power companies ‘have not yet come up with the $5 million’ that EPRI says will be needed to develop a commercial system, by making the lasers yet smaller and cheaper. So, it means that they have not given Diels enough money to develop his laser. Hence, the answer is ‘NO’ as the statement contradicts the claims of the writer.|
|12||YES||Paragraph 8 introduces that Bernstein reckons that the forthcoming ‘field tests’ (tests in real storms) ‘will be the turning point’ – and he’s hoping for good news. He predicts ‘an avalanche of interest and support’ (funding/ money) if all goes well. Hence, the answer is ‘YES’ as the statement agrees with the claims of the writer.|
|13||NOT GIVEN||In paragraph 9, the author suggests that Diels hopes to see the birth of ‘interactive meteorology’ – not just forecasting the weather but controlling it. In paragraph 10, it is further mentioned that Diels said that they will be able to confront some other ‘meteorological menaces’. Other than these two references to meteorology, there is no mention whether weather forecasters are intensely interested in Diels’s system or not. Hence, the answer is ‘NOT GIVEN’.|
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