Air Rage Reading Answers
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The Academic passage ‘Air Rage’ is a reading passage that appeared in an IELTS Test.
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|1||II||In paragraph B, it is given that “The frequency of air rage has expanded out of proportion to the growth of air travel. Until recently few statistics were gathered about air rage, but those that have been indicated that passengers are increasingly likely to cause trouble or engage in violent acts. For example, in 1998 there were 266 air rage incidents out of approximately four million passengers, a 400% increase from 1995. In the same period, American Airlines showed a 200% rise. Air travel is predicted to rise by 5% internationally by 2010 leading to increased airport congestion” Here, the statistics about the air rage indicates that there was a decline in the tolerance of passengers. Hence the appropriate heading for this paragraph is I (Disproportionate growth)|
|2||VIII||In paragraph C, the writer says that “Aside from discomfort and disruption, air rage poses some very real dangers to flying. The most extreme of these is when out of control passengers enter the cockpit. This has actually happened on a number of occasions, the worst of which have resulted in the death and injury of pilots or the intruder taking control of the plane, almost resulting in crashes. In addition, berserk passengers sometimes attempt to open the emergency doors while in flight, putting the whole aircraft in danger. These are extreme examples and cases of air rage more commonly result in physical assaults on fellow passengers and crew such as throwing objects, punching, stabbing or scalding with hot coffee.” All the dangers mentioned by the writer is a major threat for passengers travelling. Hence the appropriate heading for this paragraph is VIII (A major threat to travel.)|
|3||XI||In paragraph D, the author mentions, “A recent study has identified the issues that start the incidents to be as follows.” Here, the words ‘Recent study ‘refers to the meaning of ‘new research’, the word ‘identified’ means to pinpoint and the word ‘issues’ refer to ‘causes.’ Hence, the appropriate title will be XI (New research pinpoints the causes.)|
|4||XIII||In paragraph E, the author says,” One of the major causes seems to be the passenger’s behaviour or their personality. Fear of flying and the feeling of powerlessness associated with flying can lead to irritable or aggressive passengers. Also, alcohol consumed on a plane pressurized to 8000ft affects the drinker more quickly and the effects are stronger. Many people do not take account of this and drinking may increase any negative reaction to the flying environment they have, which, combined with the lowering of their inhibitions, may cause air rage. Smoking withdrawal, which some liken in severity to opiate withdrawal, is another major cause of air rage incidents. Passengers caught smoking in the toilets occasionally assault flight attendants and have been known to start fires. When conflicts occur in these conditions, they can escalate into major incidents if the passenger has a violent personality or a fear of flying and because of the enclosed nature of a plane offers no option of retreat as would be natural in a “fight or flight” reaction.” This paragraph talks about the problems caused by the passengers in the flight. Hence, the appropriate title will be XI (Passenger at the root of the problems)|
|5||VI||In paragraph F, the writer says “Some people feel that the physical environment of a plane can lead to air rage. Seats on most airlines have become smaller in recent years as airlines try to increase profits. This leads to uncomfortable and irritated passengers. Also, space for carry-on luggage is often very small. Because up to 8% of checked-in luggage is lost, misdirected or stolen, passengers have been trying to fit larger carry-on items into these small storage areas and this can lead to disputes that can escalate into air rage. Airlines could also be to blame by raising passengers’ expectations too high with their marketing and advertising. Many air rage incidents start when disappointed passengers demand to be reseated. Finally, there is some evidence to show that low oxygen levels can raise aggression levels and make people feel more desperate. Airlines have lowered oxygen levels to save money. Now the level of oxygen in the air that the pilots breathe is ten times higher than in cabin class.” This paragraph mentions how the passengers complain and blame the airlines. Hence the apt heading will be VI (Laying the blame with the airlines).|
|6||I||In paragraph G, the author mentions “Another reason that has been suggested is that society is getting ruder and less patient. The increased congestion at airports, longer queues and increased delays have only added to this. In addition, some air rage incidents have been linked to the demanding nature of high achieving business people, who do not like people telling them what to do and resent the power that the cabin staff have over them” Here, the writer talks about the declining tolerance of passengers inside the flight. Hence, the suitable heading for this paragraph is I (A decline in the tolerance of passengers).|
|7||IX||In paragraph H, the following lines have been given “The strongest calls for action to control air rage have come from pilots and aircrew. The International Transport Workers’ Federation argues that there are too many loopholes that let people escape punishment and that the penalties are too light. They want to notify all passengers of the penalties for air rage before taking off, rather than after the passenger begins to cause serious problems, when it may be too late. The Civil Aviation Organisation has been organizing international cooperation and penalties have increased in recent years. The most severe punishment so far has been a 51-month jail sentence…” All these lines mention about the ways the pilots and aircrew have demanded for action and change to the serious problems caused by the passengers. Hence, the suitable heading for this paragraph is IX (Demands for change.).|
|8||IV||In Paragraph I, the writer mentions, “Other measures include strengthening doors to stop people entering the cockpit, training crew in the use of plastic restraints to tie down unruly passengers and having pilots divert their planes if passengers cause problems. Banning passengers who are guilty of air rage from flying has also been tried to a lesser extent.” This information is based on the additional or other measures to take actions against severe problems caused by passengers. Hence, the suitable title for this paragraph is IV(Additional action).|
|9||FALSE||In paragraph A, the writer says that, “However, the man escaped punishment because it was not then clear under whose legal control a crime committed on the plane was, the country where the plane was registered, or the country where the crime was committed.” One of the reasons the man was not punished was because it was not then clear under whose legal control a crime committed on the plane was. The statement given in the question contradicts the information given in the text. Hence the answer is False.|
|10||NOT GIVEN||Not given in the passage|
|11||TRUE||In paragraph D, From the given table, we can see that the second most catalyst is seating, contributing to 16% of the incidents caused in the flight. The statement given in the question agrees with the information from the passage. Hence, the answer is true.|
|12||TRUE||In paragraph F, the writer says, “Some people feel that the physical environment of a plane can lead to air rage. Seats on most airlines have become smaller in recent years as airlines try to increase profits. This leads to uncomfortable and irritated passengers. Also, the space for carry-on luggage is often very small.” At the end of the paragraph the writer also says, “Finally, there is some evidence to show that low oxygen levels can raise aggression levels and make people feel more desperate” In the entire paragraph, the writer talks about the disagreements in the environment inside a plane which may become serious problems. The information given in the text agrees with the statement given in the question. Hence, the answer is true.|
|13||NOT GIVEN||Not given in the passage|
|14||FALSE||In the last two lines of paragraph I, it is given that “Banning passengers who are guilty of air rage from flying has also been tried to a lesser extent.” The writer mentions that those with a prior history of being guilty of air rage have been banned. The statement given in the question says that “There have been no attempts to ban passengers with a history of air rage.” This contradicts the information given in the text. Hence the answer is False.|
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