A. DIAGNOSTIC TEST
Twelve of these conditional sentences contain a mistake, or may be considered incorrect by most English speakers. Tick (✓) the correct sentences, then find and correct the mistakes. (Be careful! Incorrect punctuation counts as a mistake.)
Example: I would have called you if I knew you were at home.
- It may be possible, if both parties desire it, to reduce the time scale.
- If the bill is passed by both parliamentary houses then it becomes law.
- Shall we start the decorating at the weekend if we had no other plans?
- If you spill even something as innocuous as water on this fabric, it stains.
- When you press the ‘record’ button, the green light comes on.
- If the museum will charge for entry, a lot of people won’t be able to use it.
- Are you unhappy with any of our operatives, we will replace them immediately.
- If you’re taking some flowers to Julie, I’ll take some fruit.
- If the form has been correctly completed, the transfer will take only two days.
- The organisers would respond positively to proposals if they are submitted by 10th June.
- If you were to listen more carefully, you might understand a little more.
- If I was you, I should try to see a consultant as soon as possible.
- If he would have waited a bit longer, we would have given him the result.
- The King of Belgium didn’t attend the royal wedding. If he hadn’t been there, he would have witnessed a marvelous spectacle.
- If the company didn’t want to continue sponsoring us in the future, they wouldn’t renew our contract last week, would they?
- If the authority had built new homes as planned, we would have fewer homeless people on our streets today.
- Shh! I’d be grateful unless you made comments during the concert.
- Always take a basic medicine kit on holiday in case you fall ill.
- Even they go down with flu after they’ve had the vaccination, it’s likely to be less serious.
- Those concerned by the long-term effects of global warming believe that the damage has been done, whether we take remedial steps now.
Check the answers at the end of the post
B. GRAMMAR EXPLANATION: Conditionals
Conditional sentences usually consist of two clauses: a conditional clause (or if clause) and a main clause (or result clause). The result in the main clause is dependent on the condition in the conditional clause. This unit looks at the basic types of conditional sentence, and some variations on these, and introduces a number of words and phrases used to express conditions.
- GENERAL POINTS ON CONDITIONALS
1A. Sentence structures
We usually form conditional sentences in one of these basic structures:
|if clause||main clause||OR||main clause||if clause
|If I had a car,||I would take you.||I would take you||if I had a car.|
If we put the if clause first, we usually separate the clauses with a comma, especially if one clause is quite long:
If the bill is passed by both parliamentary houses, it becomes law.
We can use then in the main clause to emphasize that the result depends on the condition being achieved:
If the bill is passed by both parliamentary houses, then it becomes law.
We can put the if clause in the middle of the main clause, but this is rare:
It may be possible, if both parties desire it, to reduce the time scale.
In conversation we often use only the main clause; the if clause is implied:
Actually, it would be pretty difficult. (if we did as you asked)
1B. Sentence patterns
There are four basic conditional sentence patterns where our choice of tense depends on the time of the condition (past, present or future) and how possible or impossible we think the event is:
|zero conditional||Possible at any time, but most commonly in the present:
If your dog is depressed, he probably needs more exercise.
|first conditional||Possible in the future:
If the single flops, they’ll sack their manager.
|second conditional||Impossible in the present/possible (but improbable) in the future:
If you were a bit nicer, he wouldn’t get so cross.
|third conditional||Impossible in the past:
If you had answered the door, she wouldn’t have gone away again.
This is also known as the general conditional.
if + present simple, present simple
If you don’t look after tomato plants, they die very quickly.
We can use other present tenses in both clauses, e.g. present perfect or present continuous:
Prawns are very risky to eat if they haven’t been kept at the right temperature.
If she’s travelling abroad on business, she always phones me every evening.
We can use modal verbs in either clause, especially can and may.
Prawns can be very risky to eat if they haven t been kept at the right temperature.
If you can read this, you’re driving too close to me!
We use the zero conditional to talk about events or situations that can occur at any time, and often occur more than once, and their results:
If I eat dairy products. I get red spots on my skin.
‘If’ can be replaced by ‘when’ in this type of conditional sentence:
If/When you press this key, the game starts, and when you click here, it stops.
We use the zero conditional when we want to talk about facts or things that are generally true. Scientific facts are often covered by the zero conditional.
If you use a very hot iron on nylon, it melts.
2C. Related Uses
We can use an imperative instead of a present tense in the result clause to give a general instruction:
If a chip pan sets alight, throw a fire blanket, not water, on it.
This is also known as the likely or possible conditional.
if + Subject + present simple, Subject + will/won’t + infinitive
If the museum charges for entry, a lot of people won’t be able to visit it.
We can use other present tenses in the if clause:
If you’re coming on the motorway, you’ll need change for the tolls.
We can also use other future forms in the main clause:
If the results of the customer survey are favourable, the supermarket is going to introduce a new range.
We can use modal verbs in either clause, especially can, may and should:
If the regime can keep the loyalty of the army, they may retain power.
If the Spanish team continues to do so well, they should win the World Cup.
It is usually incorrect to use a future form in the if clause:
x If the weather will be good tomorrow, we ‘ll have a picnic.
✓ If the weather is good tomorrow, we ‘ll have a picnic.
However, it is appropriate if will won’t refers to willingness or refusal
The company will impose sanctions if the workers won’t abandon the strike.
We use the first conditional to describe possible future events or situations and their results:
If the result of the test is negative, you’ll receive notification through the post.
The bank will be starting a recruitment drive if it receives head office approval.
3C. Related uses
We can use the first conditional to express a variety of functions:
|Commands:||If you get home late, don’t wake us up!
Don’t forget to close the windows if you go out, will you?
|Offers:||I’ll call the hotel if you don’t have time.|
|Suggestions:||Shall we go out tomorrow if the weather’s good?|
|Warnings:||I’ll call the police if you don’t leave right now!|
Note that we use an imperative in the main clause for commands.
To make this conditional pattern more formal, we can omit if and use should before the subject:
Should you be less than delighted with our product, we will refund your money immediately.
This is also known as the unlikely or improbable conditional.
if + Subject 1 + past simple (were/Ved), Subject 2 + would/wouldn’t + infinitive
If they wanted to make an offer, she would listen and think it over
We can also use the past continuous or was going to in the if clause:
If a celebrity were staying in the hotel, security arrangements would be tightened.
We often use a modal in the main clause, especially might or could:
More funding for AIDS research could be secured if people were more aware of the dire situation in Africa.
With be in the if clause, we usually use the subjunctive ‘were’ for all persons. You may hear English speakers using ‘was’ as in the first example above. It is becoming accepted today, but you should not use it in formal situations.
If the programmer was familiar with this language, it would be an easy job.
✓ If the programmer were familiar with this language, it would be an easy job.
It is possible to use would in both clauses in US English but not in British English:
US: The blockades wouldn’t happen if the police would be firmer with the strikers.
Br: The blockades wouldn’t happen if the police were firmer with the strikers.
The second conditional has two main meanings.
- It can describe an improbable future event or situation. The condition is unlikely to be fulfilled because the future event is unlikely to happen:
If the result of the test were positive, we would call you within two days.
- It can also describe a hypothetical current situation or event, i.e. one which is contrary to known facts. It is therefore impossible to fulfil the condition:
If the police were confident of their case against Sykes, surely they wouldn’t hesitate to take him into custody? (= The police aren’t confident of their case.)
The choice between the first conditional and Use 1 of the second conditional often depends on how possible the speaker believes an event to be:
If Mike rings the travel agent tomorrow, he might get a cancellation. (The speaker thinks that it is likely that Mike will ring the travel agent.)
If Mike rang the travel agent tomorrow, he might get a cancellation. (The speaker thinks it is unlikely that Mike will ring the travel agent.)
4C. Related uses
We use the second conditional to express a variety of functions:
|Giving advice (with were):||If I were you, I would take her out of that school.|
|Polite requests:||If you could deal with this matter, I’d be very grateful.|
|Desires/regrets:||If we didn’t have to work so hard, we could spend more time together.|
We can use should + infinitive or were to + infinitive in the second conditional to emphasise that the condition is unlikely to happen:
If the printer should break down within the first year, we would repair it at our expense.
If you were to listen more carefully, you might understand a little more.
We can put was/were (to) before the subject in order to sound more formal:
Were you to accept our offer, we could avoid the costs of a court case.
We do not put do or the main verb in front of the subject:
X Did the builders finish the work to schedule, they would receive a bonus.
✓ If the builders finished the work to schedule, they would receive a bonus.
✓ Were the builders to finish the work to schedule, they would receive a bonus.
We can make this condition more formal by placing should before the subject:
Should the tickets fail to arrive before the departure date, we would arrange to have duplicates waiting at the airport.
This is also known as the past or impossible conditional.
If + Subject 1 + past perfect , Subject 2 + would/wouldn’t have + past participle
If we had paid our cleaner more, she wouldn’t have left us.
We can use continuous forms in either or both clauses of this conditional:
If someone had been teasing your child so nastily, you would have behaved in the same way.
We can use a modal in the main clause, usually might or could:
It might have been easier to break the news if I had known her a bit better.
If the spy had intercepted the message, he could have averted the crisis.
In US English, it is possible to use ‘would have’ in the if clause. This is becoming more common in British English, although many people consider it incorrect:
US: If the play would have finished on time, we wouldn’t have missed the train.
Br: If the play had finished on time, we wouldn’t have missed the train.
The third conditional describes a hypothetical situation or event in the past. The past situation or event is contrary to known facts, i.e. it is an unreal or impossible situation:
I would have used your builder if I had managed to contact him. (but I didn’t manage to contact him)
5C. Related Use
We can use the third conditional to express criticism:
If you’d been driving more slowly, you could have stopped in time.
We can put the auxiliary had before the subject to create a more literary style:
Had the film been released in the summer, it would not have been so successful.
Mixed conditionals include the verb forms from two different conditional patterns. These are the two most common mixed patterns.
6A. Mixed second/ third conditionals
If + Subject + Past simple (were/Ved), Subject + perfect conditional or perfect continuous conditional (would have Pii)
This conditional describes a hypothetical situation or event in the present, which is contrary to known facts. The result in the main clause refers to the past:
If the island were still a tourist attraction, last week’s earthquake would have caused far more deaths. (= The island is no longer a tourist attraction so the earthquake didn’t cause a huge number of deaths.)
6B. Mixed third/second conditionals
If + Subject 1 + Past participle (had Pii), Subject 2 + would + infinitive
This conditional describes a hypothetical situation or event in the past, which is contrary to known facts. The result in the main clause refers to the present:
If Fleming hadn’t discovered penicillin, there would be far more fatalities every year than there actually are. (= Fleming did discover penicillin so there are fewer fatalities now.)
- ALTERNATIVES TO IF
7A. Negative conditions
We often use unless to express a negative condition. It is similar to if … not or only if:
Unless you’ve got a doctor’s note to say you’ve passed the medical, they won’t allow conditions you to go on the activity holiday. (= If you don’t have a doctor’s note …, they won’t allow you …)
Unless they all retreat, the casualty count could be horrendous. (= The casualty count could be horrendous if they don’t all retreat.)
I wouldn’t be willing to help you out again unless you paid me. (= I would help again only if you paid me.)
Unless is not always an alternative to if not, especially when the negative condition after if is contrary to known facts, and in most questions:
X You’d be happier unless you had such high expectations.
✓ You’d be happier if you didn’t have such high expectations.
X What time shall we leave for the theatre unless he turns up?
✓ What time shall we leave for the theatre if he doesn’t turn up?
We can use unless with not:
The college will offer you a place on next year’s course, unless your school-leaving grade is not as predicted. (= if your school grade is as predicted)
‘Are they going to sell?’ ‘Not unless they receive an exceptional offer.’ (= They won’t if they don’t receive …)
7B. Necessary conditions
We use the conjunctions provided / providing (that), so/as long as and on (the) condition (that) to emphasise that the condition is necessary to the result. They all mean only if:
The system will not have to be drained provided that antifreeze has been added.
Expenses will be reimbursed on the condition that all receipts are submitted.
We do not use these conjunctions with the third conditional, as they can only refer to present or future conditions:
X We would have had the party there so long as they had arranged the catering.
✓ We’ll have the party here, so long as you also arrange the catering.
To express a necessary condition for something to have happened in the past, we use but for + noun phrase:
They would have all perished, but for the quick thinking of the driver. (= … if it had not been for the quick thinking of the driver)
7C. Imaginary conditions
We use Suppose/Supposing (that)… and What if … to talk about imaginary conditions.
Suppose he asked you to go to the cinema with him, would you go?
We often omit the result clause with these conjunctions:
What if the money doesn’t arrive on time?
We use in case to imagine a future situation. It is not the same as if:
I’ll pop round later in case you’re there. (= I don’t know if you’ll be there.)
I’ll pop round later if you’re there. (= I’ll only come if you’re there.)
We often use in case to imagine a precaution necessary for a situation:
She gave me the key to get in the house in case you were out.
In case of (+ noun) is more formal, and is often used in instructions:
In case of (an) emergency, pull the cord above the bath.
7D. Unexpected conditions
We use even if to express a condition that is unexpected in the circumstances:
Even if they do go down with flu after they’ve had the vaccination, it’s likely to be less serious.
7E. Alternatives conditions
We use whether … or not to express alternative conditions (for all conditional patterns):
They’ll deliver the furniture whether there’s someone to receive it or not.
C. PRACTICE EXERCISE
1. Write the correct form of the verbs in brackets to complete the conditional sentences in this article. Use modal verbs if you think they are appropriate.
NO PAIN, NO GAIN?
It’s January 1st. You’re on the bathroom scales, groaning. If you (1) _____________ (eat) that last piece of Christmas pud, perhaps you wouldn’t have put on that extra kilo. Never mind, you can lose it and get fit at the gym!
Or is that the right thing to do? If you’re unfit, you (2) ________ (stand) a huge chance of injuring yourself in the gym or on the squash court. You must take care before launching yourself into a vigorous exercise routine: if you don’t treat your body with respect, it (3) ________ (not/function) as you want it to. The knee, in particular, can cause untold problems. We (4) __________ (not/have) problems with our knees if we still (5) __________ (walk) on all fours, but they’re not up to a vertical pounding on the treadmill for an hour a day. All of our joints can cause problems; if you (6) ________ (want) to play football safely, make sure you wear the right boots to protect your ankles. Decent coaching (7) ________ (be) essential if you’re going to take up a racket sport: something as simple as a wrong-size grip can cause tennis elbow.
Many sports injuries are caused by insufficient warm-ups. If everyone spent a few minutes stretching their muscles before exercising, they (8) ________ (experience) much less pain during exercise itself. But people can be stubborn about pain when exercising. The phrase ‘no pain, no gain’ is rubbish. Should you feel pain when you’re exercising, you (9) _________ (stop) at once!
Sport has so many other hazards, though. Golf, you would think, is relatively harmless. Not so for Anthony Phua, a Malaysian golfer who was killed by getting in the way of his partner’s swing. Now, if he hadn’t taken up that particular form of exercise in the first place, it (10) _________ (happen).
What can you do if you (11) _________ (not/want) to risk sport, but you still want to lose weight? Well, it’s not all bad news for couch potatoes. If you’re happy to lose calories steadily but slowly, just (12) __________ (stay) at home: sleeping burns 60 calories an hour, ironing 132 and cooking 190. Just don’t eat what you cook!
Rephrase the information in each paragraph to use a conditional sentence The first words are given to you in each case, and the first one has been done as an example (0).
South-East Asia faces new smog crisis
0 Forest fires are breaking out all over South-East Asia. Something has to be done to control these fires or the smog crisis of two years ago will be repeated.
==> There will be a repeat of the smog crisis of two years ago if nothing is done to control the fires.
- The forecast is that the weather will stay dry, but only heavy rain can avert the crisis.
If it doesn’t rain, _________________________________________
- The government stopped releasing pollution levels in June because it didn’t want to frighten off tourists. The tourist industry has not yet suffered.
The tourist industry might ___________________________________
- Government officials are advising people with respiratory problems to wear face masks.
The Government says: ‘You should wear __________________________
- The governments involved didn’t take positive action after the 1997 crisis. Environmentalists think this is why the current crisis has happened.
If the governments involved __________________________________
- One of the problems is that few of the countries affected have a Ministry of the Environment, so there is no serious environmental protection.
There might be more ______________________________________
Here are some lines from songs. Each line is a conditional. Match the two halves of the conditional sentence to make the complete line. Be careful – one of the conditionals is incorrect
Can you identify which one?
|1. If I could read your mind, love, …
2. If I had a hammer. …
3. If I need love, …
4. If I ruled the world, …
5. If I were a carpenter, and you were a lady, …
6. If I were a rich man, …
7. If looks could kill, …
8. If you’re going to San Francisco,…
9. If I can’t have you, …
10. If we don’t try to save the love we got,
|A. would you marry me anyway?
B. they probably will, in games without frontiers.
C. we’re gonna lose it.
D. be sure to wear some flowers in your hair,
E. every day would be the first day of spring,
F. what a tale your thoughts would tell.
G. I hold out my hand and I touch love.
H. I’d hammer out reason.
I. I wouldn’t have to work hard.
K. I don’t want nobody, baby.
Match each if clause (1-5) with two possible main clauses (A-L). Then complete the main clauses using the words in brackets. Use modal verbs if appropriate.
0 If Bill Gates hadn’t been in the right place at the right time, ==> B, E
1 If athletes today didn’t take their training so seriously, __________
2 If John Lennon and Paul McCartney hadn’t met, __________
3 If Oppenheimer hadn’t discovered how to build an atomic bomb, __________
4 If It weren’t possible for scientists to isolate individual genes, __________
5 If the printing press had not been invented, __________
A. a cure for cancer ____________ imminent, (not/be)
B. he wouldn’t be the richest man in the world now. (not/be)
C. Hiroshima and Nagasaki ______________ (not/be/destroyed)
D. it _____________ possible to extend education to most people, (not/be)
E. Microsoft wouldn’t have become a household name, (not/become)
F. much of our history _____________ unknown to us. (be)
G. sport _____________ so exciting to watch, (not/be)
H. the Beatles _________________ (never/be/formed)
I. the ethical debate around cloning ____________ an issue. (not/be)
J. the pop music of today ________________ very different, (be)
K. the world ________________ a more secure and peaceful place, (be)
L. they _________________ so many records in recent years, (not/break)
Read each short text and the conditional sentences that follow it. Tick (✓) the correct conditional sentences. (One or two may be correct in each case.) Put a cross (X) by the incorrect ones. Think about the meaning as well as the grammar.
0. Thanks for looking after the house while I’m away. The only difficulty might be the burglar alarm, which occasionally goes off for no reason. The police always follow up an alarm, but just tell them that it’s a bit temperamental.
A If the alarm goes off, the police will come. ✓
B If the alarm were to go off, the police can come. X
C If the alarm should sound, the police will come. ✓
- The crash of the Air France Concorde has now been attributed to a piece of metal on the runway, apparently from a Continental Airlines DC 10 which had taken off minutes before. The metal caused one of Concorde’s tyres to burst, which in turn ruptured the fuel tank on the left-hand side of the plane.
A If the runway were swept after each take-off, the disaster might have been averted.
B If the runway had been swept after the DC 10 take-off, the disaster could have been averted.
C If the runway hadn’t been swept after the DC 10 take-off, the disaster might have been averted.
- The government urges that all children and teenagers are vaccinated against meningitis C.
A If your child had not yet been vaccinated, please make an appointment with the nurse
B If your child has not yet been vaccinated, please make an appointment with the nurse
C If your child was not yet vaccinated, please make an appointment with the nurse.
- I haven’t seen the result, but Rusedski must have finished his second round match against Pioline by now.
A If he gets through this one, he’ll be delighted.
B If he’s got through this one, he’ll be delighted.
C If he got through this one, he’d be delighted.
- Try to engage the potential client in conversation as soon as possible, to make it more difficult for him to put the phone down.
A If the client won’t engage, politely thank him for listening and hang up.
B If the client doesn’t engage, politely thank him for listening and hang up.
C If the client wouldn’t engage, you should thank him for listening and hang up.
- Over ninety-five per cent of people who successfully complete our course find that they recover the course fees within a few months through income from having their work published.
A Should you not recover the fees within a year of completing the course, we will give you a full refund.
B Did you not recover the fees within a year of completing the course, we would give you a full refund.
C If you hadn’t recovered the fees within a year of completing the course, we would give you a full refund.
- In last week’s peaceful demonstrations in Burma, one demonstrator was seriously injured when she fell and was trampled by the crowd trying to flee from the water cannons. She is still in hospital in a critical condition.
A If the demonstrator didn’t fall, she might not be in hospital now.
B If the demonstrator hadn’t fallen, she might not be in hospital now.
C If the demonstrator hadn’t fallen, she might not have been seriously injured.
For each of the sentences below, write a new sentence as similar as possible in meaning to the original sentence, but using the words given. These words must not be altered in any way.
- It would be nice to go to the beach tomorrow. .
suppose ……….suppose we went to the beach tomorrow? That would be nice.
- Perhaps Sophie doesn’t like her parents-in-law, but she keeps it to herself.
even if ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
- After her husband’s death, Mrs Jenkins sold the house to her son but insisted that he lived in it himself
on the condition that …………………………………………………………………………………………….
- If you don’t request next-day delivery, we will send the goods by normal first-class post.
- Use a power breaker when you mow the lawn as you might cut the electric lead.
in case ………………………………………………………………………………………….
- The library computer can tell you about the books you have out on loan, if any.
whether … or not …………………………………………………………………..
- I can’t imagine the consequences if the police found out!
what if ………………………………………………………………………………………
- We will only achieve the deadline if you provide all the resources we have requested.
not … unless………………………………………………………………………………………………….
- You will be awarded marks for trying to answer all the questions; not all the answers have to be correct.
whether … or not………………………………………………………………………………………………
- You’re welcome to bring Lucinda, but I don’t want her to moan about her work all day.
as long as…………………………………………………………………………………………..
- If you hadn’t been so stupid in the TV studio, our team would have won the quiz!
but for ………………………………………………………………………………….
Read this article and decide which word or words below best fits each space. Circle the letter you
choose for each question. The exercise begins with an example (0).
Good news for dog owners!
If you often travel abroad for your holidays, what (0)… with your beloved pet dog? Do you put him in a kennel or leave him with friends? One thing is certain, you’re extremely unlikely to take him with you, because if you (1) ….he (2)… six months in quarantine when you return. A bit of a stiff penalty for two weeks’ romping in the Dordogne! But this is set to change soon. From April your dog will be able to travel with you (3)… he (4)… a rabies vaccination and is wearing an identification chip. Cara Lewis, spokesperson for the Animal Welfare Society, said. ‘This is very good news for all British animal lovers. I know many people who (5)…. take their dogs on holiday with them if only they (6)… . Indeed, I used to travel to northern France regularly and I (7)… my dog Wolfie with me every time (8)… the quarantine regulations.’ But Cara also has words of warning: ‘Pet owners should remember that there are other considerations when taking animals abroad. (9)… your animal become disorientated, he (10)…. so ensure that he is wearing a collar with your holiday address at all times.’
It isn’t all good news, however. If you (11)… to a country outside Western Europe this year, you (12)… your pet with you – it will be some time before regulations for other destinations are relaxed, if ever.
0. A will you do B would you do C do you do
1 A had done B did C do
2 A will spend B has to spend C would have to spend
3 A providing B unless C in case
4 A had B had had C has had
5 A could B will C would
6 A can B could C should be able to
7 A have taken B will have taken C would have taken
8 A unless B but for C so long as
9 A Should B Did C Had
10 A runs away B should run away C might run away
1 1 A will travel B are travelling C would travel
12 A don’t take B can’t have taken C won’t be able to take
ANSWER KEY FOR DIAGNOSTIC TEST
- If the bill is passed by both parliamentary houses, then it becomes law. (insert comma)
- had ==> have
- will charge ==> charges
- Are you unhappy ==> If you are unhappy/Should you be unhappy
- ✓ ( or: the transfer takes)
- are ==> were (or: would ==> will )
- was (often considered incorrect) ==> were
- would had waited ==> had waited (but ✓ in US English)
- hadn’t been ==> had been
- wouldn’t renewed ==> wouldn’t have renewed
- unless you made ==> if you didn’t make
- Even they ==> Even if they
- whether we take remedial steps now ==> whether or not we take remedial steps now./whether we take remedial steps now or not.
ANSWER KEY FOR PRACTICE EXERCISE
1. hadn’t eaten
3. won’t function/might not function/may not function
4. wouldn’t have
8. would/might experience
9. must stop
10. wouldn’t/couldn’t have happened
11. don’t want
- If it doesn’t rain, the crisis will not be averted/we will not be able to avert the crisis.
- The tourist industry might have suffered if the government had not stopped releasing pollution levels in June/had continued to release pollution levels.
- ‘You should wear a face mask if you have/suffer from respiratory problems.’
- If the governments involved had taken positive action after the 1997 crisis, the current crisis might/would not have happened.
- There might be more serious environmental protection if more of the countries affected had a Ministry of the Environment.
- G wouldn’t be/might not be, L wouldn’t have broken/might not have broken
- H would/ might never have been formed, J would/might be
- C would not have been destroyed, K would/might be
- A might/ would not be, I would not be
- D would not have been, F would be
- A ✓ B ✓ C X
- A X B ✓CX
- A X B✓ C X
- A✓ B ✓ C X
- A ✓ B X C ✓
- A X B ✓ C ✓
- Even if Sophie doesn’t like her parents-in-law, she keeps it to herself.
- After her husband’s death, Mrs Jenkins sold the house to her son on the condition that he lived in it himself.
- Unless you request next-day delivery, we will send the goods by normal first-class post.
- Use a power breaker when you mow the lawn in case you cut the electric lead.
- The library computer can tell you whether you have any books out on loan or not/ whether or not you have any books out on loan.
- What if the police found out?
- We will not achieve the deadline unless you provide all the resources we have requested.
- You will be awarded marks for trying to answer all the questions, whether the answers are correct or not.
- You’re welcome to bring Lucinda as long as she doesn’t moan about her work all day.
- But for your stupidity in the TV studio, our team would have won the quiz!
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