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Advanced Vocabulary For Ielts 7.0+: Poverty And Social Issues ( Part 3)

Advanced Vocabulary For Ielts 7.0+: Poverty And Social Issues ( Part 3)

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POVERTY AND SOCIAL ISSUES ( PART 3)

The Role of Education in the Developing World

Use the word in brackets as a clue to help you find the correct answer for each blank in the exercise below.

Levels of 1._______ [literate] and 2. _______ [number] remain startlingly high in the developing world, and will continue to be so until the West provides or sponsors new education 3. _______ [initiate], preferably also getting directly involved. A better education is a prerequisite should the 4. _______ [poverty] masses of Africa ever wish to hold any genuine hope of gaining their 5. _______ [emancipate] from the metaphorical shackles of poverty. Education 6. _______ [initiate] for young people as well as life-long learning programmes will also help to breach the gulf that separates the working classes from their ruling elite, a 7. _______ [privilege] few who enjoy the 8. _______ [trap] of Western wealth and the lifestyle that goes with it, while those in their midst are completely 9. _______ [occupy] with the daily struggle for survival. Furthermore, we must promote a culture of 10. _______ [tolerate] of corruption, and help to create a new 11. _______ [generate] for whom education rather than an 12. _______ [scruple] nature will reap the true rewards. Education will also help to bridge another gap; that of the cultural one which separates the West from its brethren in the developing world. The 13. _______ [poverty] slums and shanty towns are a hotbed of religious and political 14. _______ [extreme], but hopefully education will serve to create a better sense of 15. _______ [understand] between all the peoples of the world, 16. _______ [respect] of background. And this will especially be the case if the education programmes themselves are administered by Western professionals, who, in much the same way as they can teach a thing or two to their 17. _______ [counter] in the developing world, have also, no doubt, much to learn from them in the process as well. Cooperation between people from the different cultures of the West and the developing world will also, hopefully, help to reduce levels of prejudice, bigotry, xenophobia and racial 18. _______ [tense]. And, last but not by any means least, educating women will 19. _______        [power] them to claim their rightful place in the social hierarchy in up-to-now male-dominated cultures. Their 20. _______ [aspire] can shift realistically higher, and young female students can hope to go on to become tomorrow’s politicians, diplomats and political leaders, or whatsoever they choose.

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Immigration and the Developing World

(A) Use the words from the box to fill the gaps. You may need to use some words several times. You will not have to change the tense/ form, but you may need to pluralise in some cases.

sustenance       destitution       asylum             indigenous       inferiority        deprivation

integration       obligation        cosmopolitan   corruption        oppression       inequity

deportation      assimilation     malnutrition     surrogate         metropolis       tangible

sanitation         starvation        repercussion

Most of our main 1.__________ in the West are now pretty diverse places. However, many 2. __________ seekers come from far less 3.__________ parts of the world, and it can be quite a culture shock for them when they arrive in their 4. __________ homes. Genuine 5. __________ seekers are, by definition, fleeing a 6. __________ threat to their very lives and should be afforded all the assistance and protection the state can provide once their status has been upheld and 7. __________ granted. This extends as far as helping then cope with the 8. __________ process, one of the most immediate barriers to successfully embracing which is, of course, often the language. But there are other factors which can make 9. __________ difficult, too. Many 10. __________ seekers carry the physical and emotional scars of 11. __________ . They may suffer from an 12. __________ complex of sorts, too, and feel overwhelmed by the perceived ‘sophistication’ of their new home. Of course, the state’s first 13. __________ is to provide them with adequate 14. __________ , shelter and 15. __________ . Many may be suffering from 16. __________ , or, in the worst cases, starvation. The effects of sleep 17. __________ may also be a concern if their recent past has been particularly traumatic and eventful. But, of course, these are the lucky ones – at least they get to remain in their adopted homes. If an 18. __________ application is rejected, then the applicant faces 19. __________ back to their country of origin. Sometimes, those seeking asylum know their claim will be rejected but go through the process nonetheless out of sheer desperation in the hope that it can buy them time to find some other way to stay in the country, which some manage to do, often illegally. But just because a case is rejected, that is not to say that the individual or individuals concerned will not face serious 20. __________ if they return home. For some, the door to the West is a tantalising jar agape, but not enough so as to gain entry. Instead, they are perhaps faced with the harsh realities of famine and 21. __________ , political 22. __________ or social 23. __________ back in their 24. __________ homes. The grim realities of 25. __________ and life on the very margins are all that await the most tragic cases of the rejected.

(B) Find closest matches for the definitions listed below from the answer choices given for the last section.

1. substitute

2. unfair and cruel government of people

3. large city

4. disposal of sewage and solid waste associated with native cleanliness

5. diverse and varied, having a global feel

6. injustice or unfairness

7. the state of being without money, food, shelter or possessions

8. relating to or originating in a particular region,

9. food

10. the feeling of not being as good as something else

ANSWER KEY

The Role of  Education in the Developing World

1. illiteracy

2. innumeracy

3. initiatives

4. impoverished

5. emancipation

6. initiatives

7. privileged

8. trappings

9. preoccupied

10. intolerance

11. generation

12. unscrupulous

13. impoverished

14. extremism

15. understanding

16. irrespective

17. counterparts

18. tensions

19. empower

20. aspirations

Immigration and the Developing World

(A)

1. metropolises

2. asylum

3. cosmopolitan

4. surrogate

5. asylum

6. tangible

7. asylum

8. integration/ assimilation

9. integration/ assimilation

10. asylum

11. oppression

12. inferiority

13. obligation

14. sustenance/ sanitation

15. sustenance/ sanitation

16. malnutrition

17. deprivation

18. asylum

19. deportation

20. repercussions

21. starvation

22. corruption

23. inequity

24. indigenous

25. destitution

 (B)

1. surrogate

2. oppression

3. metropolis

4. sanitation

5. cosmopolitan

6. inequity

7. destitution

8. indigenous

9. sustenance

10. inferiority

See also:

Written By

Nafia Zuhana is an experienced content writer and IELTS Trainer. Currently, she is guiding students who are appearing for IELTS General and Academic exams through ieltsmaterial.com. With an 8.5 score herself, she trains and provides test takers with strategies, tips, and nuances on how to crack the IELTS Exam. She holds a degree in Master of Arts – Creative Writing, Oxford Brookes University, UK. She has worked with The Hindu for over a year as an English language trainer.

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