Global Warming the Beginning of the End Reading Answers
The Academic passage ‘Global Warming the Beginning of the End‘ is a reading passage that appeared in an IELTS Test.
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Global Warming The Beginning of the End
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|1||need||Paragraph A states that the ‘Stern Review Report on The Economics of Climate Change’,
published in 2006, made it clear that
‘governments need to take the issue of global warming very seriously’. Hence, the answer is ‘need’.
|2||An economic||In paragraph A, the writer mentions that ‘the Stern Review’ examined the ‘issue of climate
change’ from ‘an economic perspective’, looking at what it would cost the government to take appropriate action, and what it would
cost if appropriate action were not taken.
Hence, the answer is ‘An economic’.
|3||disasters||Paragraph A states that the report (The Stern Review Report on The Economics of Climate Change) also ‘highlighted’ (focused) a number of catastrophes that would occur ‘if urgent measures were not taken’ (governments do not act to prevent climate change) to stop the carbon dioxide production that is heating up the planet. It is further added that if ‘the rising carbon dioxide levels’ is not controlled over the next 100 years, ‘a rise of up to five degrees Celsius can be expected’ which may lead to various environmental issues. This will have an enormous impact on global economic growth and will ‘cause many potentially disastrous changes’ Hence, the answer is ‘disasters’.|
|4||x||Paragraph A discusses the ‘Stern Review Report on The Economics of Climate Change’,
published in 2006, which made it clear that
governments need to take ‘the issue of global warming very seriously indeed’. The Stern Review ‘examined the issue of climate change from an economic perspective’, looking at what it would cost the government to take appropriate action, and what it would cost if appropriate action were not taken. The report also ‘highlighted a number of catastrophes’ that would occur if urgent measures were not taken to stop the carbon dioxide production that is heating up the planet. The report indicates that in the last 200 years, average temperatures on the planet have increased by less than one degree Celsius; however, if we ‘do not control the rising carbon dioxide levels over the next 100 years, a rise of up to five degrees Celsius can be expected’. This will have an ‘enormous impact on global economic growth and will cause many potentially disastrous changes’. Hence, the answer is x (Alarming studies).
|5||vii||In paragraph B, the writer tells about the beginning in the Andes, and then extending to the huge glaciers of the Himalayas, the ‘ice will begin to disappear’, threatening the water supply of billions of people. ‘Sea levels will also rise, flooding huge areas of the world’ (sinking), including ‘cities such as London and Tokyo’ (cities). Hence, the answer is vii (Sinking cities).|
|6||ix||Paragraph C states that not only will glaciers melt but as the planet warms up, the ‘huge Antarctic Ice Sheets and the floating sea ice of the Arctic will begin to melt’ (trouble at poles), again resulting in catastrophic rises in sea levels. It is estimated that ‘Arctic summers will be ice-free within 10 years’, and the ‘landscapes of the Antarctic will change beyond recognition by 2050’. The ‘vast ice plains of Greenland are also under threat’. Hence, the answer is ix (Trouble at the poles).|
|7||vi||Paragraph D mentions that the acidity resulting from the ‘huge amounts of CO2’ that the oceans will absorb will lead to the ‘extinction of hundreds of species as marine ecosystems are destroyed’; this will also threaten the fishing industry as ‘thousands of millions of fish die off’. This, in turn, will destroy the livelihood of thousands of fishing communities that depend on already overfished coastal areas. Hence, the answer is vi (Endangering sea life).|
|8||v||Paragraph E pointed out that accompanying the floods will be an increasing occurrence of droughts, with a ‘decrease of up to 30% in water availability’ in Africa, and similar decreases in Australia. This will, of course, result in crop failure and malnutrition the world over. It will also lead to an increase in disease, particularly in tropical regions. Large cities in dry regions will find it ‘increasingly difficult to provide enough water for their populations’. Hence, the answer is v (Water crisis).|
|9||iv||Paragraph F highlights the fact that ‘Hurricanes, cyclones and tidal waves’, both A1 Gore’s book and the Stern Review indicate, that if global temperatures continue to rise, we can expect ‘a greater number of extreme weather phenomena’, of ‘increased severity’. ‘Hurricane Katrina’, which devastated the United States in 2005, is cited as just one example of the kind of ‘environmental and economic havoc’ that will result from unchecked global warming. ‘Typhoons’, which often cause ‘extensive flooding’, are becoming more frequent and devastating in South East Asia. Hence, the answer is iv (Extreme weather).|
|10||iii||In paragraph G, the writer shares that ‘up to 50% of animal and plant species on the planet’, beginning with those living in fragile environments such as coral reefs, tropical rainforest and alpine tundra, ‘will become extinct’. ‘Climate change’ will eventually ‘affect every ecosystem on the planet’ as temperatures increase, the rainforest is destroyed and sea levels rise, leading to flooding and drought. The ‘impact on ecosystems will be so dramatic that they will never recover from the damage’ caused by rising temperatures. Hence, the answer is iii (Killing wildlife).|
|11||ii||Different approaches to balance out the effects of climate change are pointed out in paragraph I. The ‘first approach’ is to ‘begin to act locally’ to do your bit ‘to reduce CO2 emissions and minimise pollution’, at the same time
hoping that ‘governments will listen to the recommendations of the Stern Review’, which, ‘while recognising the seriousness of the
threat, indicates that’ if action is taken now, ‘the right balance between economic growth and environmental conservation may be achieved’. The Report is significant, both in its scope and its depth, and it does ‘offer a positive outcome that allows economic growth to continue’ so perhaps this will convince governments to take the action necessary to save the planet from environmental and economic disaster. Hence, the answer is ii (A balancing act).
|12||i||Paragraph J writes about the ‘second approach’ which is to ‘disregard the warnings of A1 Gore, the Stern Review team and other like-minded harbingers of doom’, and instead ‘opt for the much more positive and less dramatic stance’
taken by a very different group of scientists and economists. With its nominal leader the Danish economist, Bjorn Lomborg, the Omgivelse group believes that many of the predictions of the
environmentalists are hugely exaggerated. Like Stern, ‘Lomborg takes a pragmatic economic approach to the environmental
situation and argues for investment in environmental research and development’ (long term) rather than quick-fix measures that would not solve the problem. With significantly less investment than that recommended in the Kyoto Accord or by the Stern Review Report, Lomborg believes the planet can be saved.
Hence, the answer is i (Long term solutions).
|13||B||Paragraph I brought up the first approach to handle the environmental crisis, which is to begin to act locally to reduce CO2 emissions and minimise pollution, at the same time hoping that governments will listen to the recommendations of the Stern Review. It recognises the seriousness of the threat and indicates that if action is taken now, the ‘right balance between economic growth and environmental conservation may be achieved’. The Report offers ‘a positive outcome that allows economic growth to continue’ so perhaps this will convince governments to take the action necessary ‘to save the planet from environmental and economic disaster’. Hence, the answer is B (to strike the balance between economy and environment).|
|14||D||Paragraph J refers to Bjorn Lomborg,the Danish economist, whose Omgivelse group believes that ‘many of the predictions of the environmentalists are hugely exaggerated’. Like Stern, ‘Lomborg takes a pragmatic economic approach to the environmental situation’ and argues for investment in environmental research and development, ‘rather than quick-fix measures’ that would not solve the problem. Hence, the answer is D (to stop exaggerating the issue).|
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