Advanced Vocabulary for IELTS 7.0 +: ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AND THE NATURAL WORLD (Part 4)

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AND THE NATURAL WORLD ( Part 4)

Environmental Issues in the Developing World 3

For each gap, choose the correct answer from options a – d.

The issues for 1. ____________ economies are a little more straightforward. The desire to build on undeveloped land is not 2.   ____________ out of desperation or necessity, but is a result of the relentless march of progress. Cheap labour and a relatively highly-skilled workforce make these countries highly competitive and there is a flood of inward investment, particularly from 3. ____________ looking to take advantage of the low wages before the cost and standard of living begin to rise. It is factors such as these that are making many Asian economies extremely attractive when viewed as investment opportunities at the moment. Similarly, in Africa, the relative 4. ____________ of precious metals and natural resources tends to attract a lot of 5. ____________ companies and a whole sub-industry develops around and is completely dependent on this foreign-direct investment. It is understandable that countries that are the focus of this sort of attention can lose sight of the environmental implications of large-scale industrial development, and this can have devastating consequences for the natural world. And it is a 6. ____________ cycle because the more industrially active a nation becomes, the greater the demand for and harvesting of natural resources. For some, the environmental issues, though they can hardly be ignored, are viewed as a 7. ____________ concern. Indeed, having an environmental conscience or taking environmental matters into consideration when it comes to decisions on whether or not to build rubber-tree 8.      or grow biofuel crops would be quite 9. ____________ indeed. For those involved in such schemes it is a pretty black-and-white issue. And, for vast 10. ____________ of land in Latin America, for example, it is clear that the welfare of the rainforests matters little to local government when vast sums of money can be made from cultivating the land.

  1. (a) emerging           (b) emergent              (c) convergent             (d) resurgent
  2. (a) grown                 (b) born                       (c) bred                        (d) arisen
  3. (a) multinationals   (b) migrants               (c) continentals            (d) intercontinentals
  4. (a) premonition       (b) abundance           (c) amplitude               (d) accumulation
  5. (a) exploitation        (b) exploration           (c) surveyance             (d) research
  6. (a) vacuous               (b) viscous                  (c) vexatious                (d) vicious
  7. (a) parallel                (b) extrinsic               (c) peripheral               (d) exponential
  8. (a) plantations         (b) homesteads          (c) ranches                   (d) holdings
  9. (a) proscriptive       (b) prohibitive           (c) prospective             (d) imperative
  10. (a) regions               (b) plots                       (c) tracts                         (d) sectors

Abbreviations

Write the following acronyms and molecular formulas out in full.

  1. NGO ______________ Hint: an organisation that is independent of the government
  2. C02 ______________ Hint: a type of gas which trees absorb
  3. CH4 ______________ Hint: a type of gas cattle produce a lot of
  4. WWF ______________ Hint: a leading international nature organisation (panda logo)
  5. GM Food ______________ Hint: crops that scientists have tampered with
  6. CFCs ______________ Hint: produced by aerosol sprays

Observed Global Climate Change

The words in the box can be used to fill gaps I – 10. However, in many cases, you will either have to change the form or the tense. Use each word once only.

concur             onset          register                        local                 fluctuate

occur               alarm             intense             observe            convince

There is now, by and large, 1._______________, among scientists that Global Warming is real. The fact that an average surface temperature rise of approximately one degree was 2. _______________ during the 20th century, in addition to the fact that the rate of warming 3. _______________ in the latter half of same and was nearly double that of the first 50 years is enough to 4. _______________ most scientists. Climate proxies also suggest that, with the exception of 5. _______________ warming and cooling events such as Europe’s Little Ice Age, this is the first significant and prolonged temperature 6. _______________ in the best part of 2000 years on a global level. Further evidence in support of the warming hypothesis comes by way of the fact that, also during the 20th century, a considerable rise in sea levels was 7. _______________ , and, across both hemispheres, southern and northern, glaciers went into retreat, and remain so. Oceanic warming, albeit gradual up to now, has also been confirmed, and the 8. _______________ rate of melting of polar ice, coupled with a general rise in humidity and the increasingly early 9. _______________ of spring each year are factors the likelihood of the simultaneous coincidental 10.            _______________ of which scientists say is virtually nil.

ANSWER KEY

Environmental Issues in the Developing World 3

1 a       2. b      3. a      4. b      5. b

6 d       7. c      8. a      9. b      10. c

Abbreviations

  1. Non-governmental Organization
  2. Carbon Dioxide
  3. Methane Gas
  4. World Wide Fund (for Nature)
  5. Genetically Modified Food
  6. chlorofluorocarbons

Observed Global Climate Change

1 concurrence 2. registered 3. intensified 4. convince 5. localised

6 fluctuation 7. observed/registered 8. alarming 9. onset 10. occurrence

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Advanced Vocabulary for IELTS 7.0 +: ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AND THE NATURAL WORLD (Part 4)
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