The Impact of Wilderness Tourism – IELTS Reading Answers
The Academic passage ‘The Impact of Wilderness Tourism’ is a reading passage that appeared in an IELTS Test. Read the passage below and answer questions 1-13. Beyond the questions, you will find the answers along with the location of the answers in the passage and the keywords that help you find out the answers.
Reading Passage: Link Here
The Impact of Wilderness Tourism
|1||(iii)||In the first paragraph of Section A, the writer talks about the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development recognized certain ‘regions’ (wilderness’ regions), such as mountains, Arctic lands, deserts, small islands and wetlands, as ‘fragile’ (i.e. highly vulnerable to abnormal pressures), not just in terms of their ecology, but also in terms of the culture of their inhabitants. In the second paragraph of the same section, it is said how ‘tourists are drawn to these regions’ by their ‘natural landscape beauty and the unique cultures of their indigenous people’ (reasons for expansion of tourism). Moreover, poor governments in these isolated areas have ‘welcomed the new breed of ‘adventure tourist’’, grateful for the ‘hard currency they bring’ (reason for tourism). Hence, the answer is (iii) (Fragile regions and the reasons for the expansion of tourism there).|
|2||(v)||In paragraph 1 of Section B, it is stated that once a location is established as the main ‘tourist destination’, the ‘effects on the local community are profound’. Sometimes, ‘hill-farmers’ can make ‘more money working as porters for foreign trekkers’ than they can ‘in a year working in their fields’. As a result, many of them ‘give up their farm-work’. In some hill-regions, this has led to a ‘serious decline in farm output’ and ‘a change in the local diet’ ‘due to insufficient labour’. The result has been that ‘many people in these regions have turned to outside supplies of rice and other foods’. Further, in the third paragraph, ‘the physical impact of visitors’ is ‘another serious problem’ associated with the ‘growth in adventure tourism’. Much attention has focused on ‘erosion’ along major trails, but perhaps more important are the ‘deforestation and impacts on water supplies’ arising from the need ‘to provide tourists with cooked food and hot showers’. In both ‘mountains and deserts, slow-growing trees’ are often the main sources of fuel and water supplies may ‘be limited’ or vulnerable to degradation through ‘heavy use’. These are some of the disadvantages of wilderness tourism. Hence, the answer is (v) (Some of the disruptive effects of wilderness tourism).|
|3||(ii)||In the first paragraph of Section C, it is notified that although tourism inevitably affects the region in which it takes place, the costs to these fragile environments and their local cultures can be minimized. Indeed, it can even be a ‘vehicle for reinvigorating local cultures’, as has happened with the Sherpas of Nepal’s Khumbu Valley and in some Alpine villages. The second paragraph mentions that in the Swiss Alps, communities have decided that their future depends on ‘integrating tourism more effectively with the local economy’. The third paragraph informs us that some ‘Arctic communities are now operating tour businesses themselves’, thereby ensuring that the ‘benefits accrue locally’. In the fourth paragraph, it is stated that ‘native people in the desert regions of the American Southwest’ have followed similar strategies, ‘encouraging tourists to visit their pueblos and reservations to purchase high-quality handicrafts and artwork’ (bringing in revenue to local trade). Moreover, ‘communities in fragile environments must achieve greater control over tourism ventures in their regions in order to balance their needs and aspirations with the demands of tourism’. Hence, the answer is ii) (How local communities can balance their own needs with the demands of wilderness tourism).|
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|4||YES||In the beginning of the first paragraph of Section A, the writer mentions that ‘countries all across the world’ are actively ‘promoting their ‘wilderness’ regions’ such as mountains, Arctic lands, deserts, small islands and wetlands, to high-spending tourists. Moreover, ‘wilderness tourism’ requires ‘little or no initial investment’ (low financial cost of setting up) which is the main ‘attraction of these areas’ . Hence, the answer is Yes as the statement reflects the claims of the writer.|
|5||YES||In section A, it is pointed out that countries all across the world are actively promoting their ‘‘wilderness’ regions’ – such as ‘mountains, Arctic lands, deserts’, small islands and wetlands. As the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development recognized, ‘these regions are fragile’ not just ‘in terms of their ecology’ (ecologically fragile), but also in terms of the ‘culture of their inhabitants’ (culturally fragile). The three most significant types of fragile environments in these respects are ‘deserts, mountains and Arctic areas’. Hence, the answer is Yes as the statement reflects the claims of the writer.|
|6||NO||In the last portion of paragraph 1 of Section A it is noted that the three ‘most significant types of fragile environments’ are ‘deserts, mountains and Arctic areas’. An ‘important characteristic’ is their ‘marked seasonality’ due to harsh conditions prevailing for many months each year. As a result, most human activities, including tourism, are limited to quite clearly defined parts of the year.
Hence, the answer is No as the statement, wilderness tourism operates throughout the year in fragile areas, contradicts the claims of the writer.
|7||YES||In the first paragraph of section B, it is informed that as ‘hill-farmers’ make ‘more money’ in a few weeks ‘working as porters for foreign trekkers’ (result of tourism), they ‘give up their farm-work’. In ‘some hill-regions’, ‘this has led to a serious decline in farm output’ (fall in the amount of food produced locally) and a ‘change in the local diet’ due to ‘insufficient labour’ to ‘maintain terraces and irrigation systems and tend to crops’.
Hence, the answer is Yes as the statement reflects the claims of the writer.
|8||NO||In the first sentence of paragraph 2 in section B, the writer writes that in the Arctic and ‘desert societies’, ‘year-round’ (over the year) survival has ‘traditionally’ depended on ‘hunting animals and fish and collecting fruit’ (food-gathering) ‘over a relatively short season’. So, the food-gathering does not take place over the year, but is limited to a short season or period of time. Hence, the answer is No as the statement contradicts the claims of the writer.|
|9||NOT GIVEN||In the second paragraph of Section B, it is written that as some ‘inhabitants become involved in tourism’, they ‘no longer have time to collect wild food’. This has led to ‘increasing dependence on bought food and stores’. But, it is added that tourism is not always the culprit behind such changes. All kinds of wage labour, or ‘government handouts’ also tend to undermine traditional survival systems. Both the conditions/reason for change in traditional patterns of food-gathering are mentioned, but there is no comparison of which one is more harmful. Hence, the answer is Not Given as it’s impossible to say what the writer thinks of this statement.|
|10||cheese||Paragraph 2 of section C gives an idea of how communities in the Swiss Alps have decided that their future depends on integrating tourism more effectively with the local economy. Local concern about the rising number of second home developments in the ‘Swiss Pays d’Enhaut’ resulted in limits being imposed on their growth. There has also been a ‘renaissance in communal cheese production’ (revived prediction of cheese) in the area, providing the locals with a reliable source of income that does not depend on outside visitors. Hence, the answer is ‘cheese’.|
|11||tourism/tour||In paragraph 3 of Section C, the writer points out that in some ‘Arctic communities’ are ‘now operating tour businesses’ themselves, thereby ‘ensuring that the benefits accrue locally’. Hence, the answer is ‘tourism/tour’.|
|12||pottery||In paragraph 4 of Section C, the writer points out that native people in the desert regions of the American Southwest have encouraged tourists to visit their pueblos and reservations to purchase high-quality handicrafts and artwork. For example, The ‘Acoma and San Ildefonso’ pueblos have established highly profitable pottery businesses’ (produce and sell). Hence, the answer is ‘pottery’.|
|13||jewellry||In paragraph 4 of Section C, the writer notes that native people in the desert regions of the American Southwest have encouraged tourists to visit their pueblos and reservations to purchase high-quality handicrafts and artwork. For example, while the Acoma and San Ildefonso pueblos have established highly profitable pottery businesses, the ‘Navajo and Hopi groups’ have been similarly successful with jewellery (produce and sell). Hence, the answer is ‘jewellery’.|
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