Sitting at home because of Covid-19?

Great time to prepare for IELTS. Check out our award winning ebooks now.

Sitting at home due to Covid-19? Great time to prepare for IELTS.

The Return of Artificial Intelligence Reading Answers
The Return of Artificial Intelligence Reading Answers

The Return of Artificial Intelligence Reading Answers

The Academic passage ‘The Return of Artificial Intelligence’ is a reading passage that appeared in an IELTS Test. Read the passage below and answer questions 27-40. Beyond the questions, you will find the answers along with the location of the answers in the passage and the keywords that help you find out the answers.

The Return of Artificial Intelligence

Answer questions 27-40 based on your reading of the passage below.

It is becoming acceptable again to talk of computers performing human tasks such as problem-solving and pattern-recognition.

A

After years in the wilderness, the term ‘artificial intelligence’ (AI) seems poised to make a comeback. AI was big in the 1980s but vanished in the 1990s. It re-entered public consciousness with the release of Al, a movie about a robot boy. This has ignited a public debate about AI, but the term is also being used once more within the computer industry. Researchers, executives and marketing people are now using the expression without irony or inverted commas. And it is not always hype. The term is being applied, with some justification, to products that depend on technology that was originally developed by AI researchers. Admittedly, the rehabilitation of the term has a long way to go, and some firms still prefer to avoid using it. But the fact that others are starting to use it again suggests that AI has moved on from being seen as an over-ambitious and under-achieving field of research.

B

The field was launched, and the term ‘artificial intelligence’ coined, at a conference in 1956 by a group of researchers that included Marvin Minsky, John McCarthy, Herbert Simon and Alan Newell, all of whom went on to become leading figures in the field. The expression provided an attractive but informative name for a research programme that encompassed such previously disparate fields as operations research, cybernetics, logic and computer science. The goal they shared was an attempt to capture or mimic human abilities using machines. That said, different groups of researchers attacked different problems, from speech recognition to chess-playing, in different ways; AI unified the field in name only. But it was a term that captured the public imagination.

C

Most researchers agree that AI peaked around 1985. A public reared on science-fiction movies and excited by the growing power of computers had high expectations. For years, AI researchers had implied that a breakthrough was just around the corner. Marvin Minsky said in 1967 that within a generation, the problem of creating artificial intelligence’ would be substantially solved. Prototypes of medical-diagnosis programs and speech recognition software appeared to be making progress. It proved to be a false dawn. Thinking computers and household robots failed to materialise, and a backlash ensued. `There was undue optimism in the early 1980s; says David Leaky, a researcher at Indiana University. ‘Then when people realised these were hard problems, there was retrenchment. By the late 1980s, the term AI was being avoided by many researchers, who opted instead to align themselves with specific sub-disciplines such as neural networks, agent technology, case-based reasoning, and so on.

D

Ironically, in some ways, AI was a victim of its own success. Whenever an apparently mundane problem was solved, such as building a system that could land an aircraft unattended, the problem was deemed not to have been AI in the first plate. ‘If it works, it can’t be AI; as Dr Leaky characterises it. The effect of repeatedly moving the goal-posts in this way was that AI came to refer to ‘blue-sky’ research that was still years away from commercialisation. Researchers joked that AI stood for `almost implemented’. Meanwhile, the technologies that made it onto the market, such as speech recognition, language translation and decision-support software, were no longer regarded as AI. Yet all three once fell well within the umbrella of AI research.

E

But the tide may now be turning, according to Dr Leake. HNC Software of San Diego, backed by a government agency, reckon that their new approach to artificial intelligence is the most powerful and promising approach ever discovered. HNC claim that their system, based on a cluster of 30 processors, could be used to spot camouflaged vehicles on a battlefield or extract a voice signal from a noisy background – tasks humans can do well, but computers cannot. ‘Whether or not their technology lives up to the claims made for it, the fact that HNC are emphasising the use of AI is itself an interesting development; says Dr Leaky.

F

Another factor that may boost the prospects for AI in the near future is that investors are now looking for firms using clever technology, rather than just a clever business model, to differentiate themselves. In particular, the problem of information overload, exacerbated by the growth of e-mail and the explosion in the number of web pages, means there are plenty of opportunities for new technologies to help filter and categorise information – classic AI problems. That may mean that more artificial intelligence companies will start to emerge to meet this challenge.

G

The 1969 film, 2001: A Space Odyssey, featured an intelligent computer called HAL 9000. As well as understanding and speaking English, HAL could play chess and even learned to lipread. HAL thus encapsulated the optimism of the 1960s that intelligent computers would be widespread by 2001. But 2001 has been and gone, and there is still no sign of a HAL-like computer. Individual systems can play chess or transcribe speech, but a general theory of machine intelligence still remains elusive. It may be, however, that the comparison with HAL no longer seems quite so important, and AI can now be judged by what it can do, rather than by how well it matches up to a 30-year-old science-fiction film. ‘People are beginning to realise that there are impressive things that these systems can do; says Dr Leake hopefully.

Questions 27-31

The reading passage has seven paragraphs, A-G. Which paragraph contains the following information?

Write the correct letter A-G in boxes 27-31 on your answer sheet. You may use any letter more than once.

  1. HowAI might have a military impact
  2. The fact that AI brings together a range of separate research areas
  3. The reason why AI has become a common topic of conversation again
  4. How AI could help deal with difficulties related to the amount of information available electronically.
  5. Where the expression AI was first used

Questions 32-37

Do the following statements agree with the information given in the reading passage?

In boxes 32-37 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

  1. The researchers who launched the field of AI had worked together on other projects in the past.
  2. In 1985, AI was at its lowest point.
  3. Research into agent technology was more costly than research into neural networks.
  4. Applications of AI have already had a degree of success.
  5. The problems waiting to be solved by AI have not changed since 1967.
  6. The film 2001: A Space Odyssey reflected contemporary ideas about the potential of AI computers.

Questions 38-40

Choose the correct answer out of A, B, C or D.

Write your answers in boxes 38-40 on your answer sheet.

  1. According to researchers, in the late 1980s, there was a feeling that
  1. A general theory of AI would never be developed
  2. Original expectations of AI may not have been justified
  3. A wide range of applications was close to fruition
  4. More powerful computers were the key to further progress
  1. In Dr Leake’s opinion, the reputation of AI suffered as a result of
  1. changing perceptions
  2. premature implementation
  3. poorly planned projects
  4. commercial pressures
  1. The prospects for AI may benefit from
  1. existing AI applications
  2. new business models
  3. orders from Internet-only companies
  4. new investment priorities

Answers

The answers to these questions are given below with their expectations.

Question Number Answer Keywords Location of Keywords
27 E HNC claim, system, cluster, 30 processors, spot camouflaged vehicles, battlefield Paragraph E; lines 3-4
28 B The expression, informative name research, encompassed, disparate fields, operations research, cybernetics, logic, computer science Paragraph B; lines 3-5
29 A re-entered public consciousness, release, Al, movie, robot boy Paragraph A; lines 2-3
30 F information overload, growth of e-mail, explosion, number of web pages, plenty of opportunities, new technologies, filter, categorise information Paragraph F; lines 3-5
31 B field was launched, term ‘artificial intelligence’ coined, conference, 1956 Paragraph B; line 1
32 NOT GIVEN
33 FALSE Most researchers agree, AI peaked, 1985 Paragraph C; line 1
34 NOT GIVEN
35 TRUE Ironically, some ways AI, victim, own success Paragraph D; line 1
36 FALSE Marvin Minsky, 1967, within, generation, problem, artificial intelligence, substantially solved, proved, false dawn Paragraph C; lines 3-5; line 6
37 TRUE The 1969 film, 2001: A Space Odyssey, featured, intelligent computer, HAL 9000 Paragraph G; line 1
38 B 1980s, AI, avoided, researchers, align, sub-disciplines, neural networks, agent technology, case-based reasoning Paragraph C; last 3 lines
39 A undue optimism, early 1980s, David Leaky, Indiana University, people realised, hard problems, retrenchment Paragraph C; lines 7-9
40 D Another factor, boost, prospects, AI, near future, investors, looking for firms Paragraph F; lines 1-2

Also check :

Written By

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Featured Posts

IELTS Speaking Part 2 Topics in 2019 & Sample Answers
IELTS Speaking Part 2 Topics in 2019 & Sample Answers

To be well-prepared for IELTS exam (both IELTS Academic & IELTS General Training Module),......

42 Topics for IELTS Speaking Part 1 and Suggested Answers (PDF)
42 Topics for IELTS Speaking Part 1 and Suggested Answers (free PDF download)

In the IELTS Speaking Part 1 Section, IELTS examiner will introduce him or herself......

IELTS General Training Writing Task 2 Sample Questions (2013 – 2020) & Model Answers PDF
IELTS General Training Writing Task 2 Sample Questions (2013 – 2020) & Model Answers free PDF download

Though IELTS writing is considered to be difficult for some students, it's helpful to......

150 IELTS Speaking Topics 2020 Part 2 & 3 with Model Answers
150 IELTS Speaking Topics 2020 Part 2 & 3 with Model Answers

Check out the latest IELTS Speaking Part 2 topics 2020 with model answers by......

Cambridge Practice Tests for IELTS Series (1 - 14) Academic and General Training Student's Book with Answers and Audios
Cambridge Practice Tests for IELTS Series (1 – 14) Academic and General Training Student’s Book with Answers and Audios

Cambridge Practice Tests for IELTS Series (1 - 14), written by experienced IELTS examiners......

IELTS Speaking Part 1 Topics 2020 (Jan - May 2020) & Sample Answers
IELTS Speaking Part 1 Topics 2020 (Jan – May 2020) & Sample Answers

In part 1 of the speaking test, the examiner will introduce himself or herself......

Cambridge Practice Tests for IELTS Series (1 - 14) Student's Book with Answers with Audio [Latest Update]
Cambridge Practice Tests for IELTS Series (1 – 14) Student’s Book with Answers with Audio [Latest Update]

Cambridge IELTS 1 - 13 Academic & General Training Student's Book with Answers with......

101 IELTS Academic Reading Past Test Papers with Answers PDF Download
101 IELTS Academic Reading Past Test Papers with Answers PDF Download

"101 IELTS Reading Past Papers With Answers" is a must-have IELTS preparation book for......

50 Recent IELTS Speaking Topics 2020 Part 2 & 3 with Model Answers
50 Recent IELTS Speaking Topics 2020 Part 2 & 3 with Model Answers

For Band 9 Sample Answers for all Part 1,2,3 topics in 2020, you can......

All Useful IELTS Writing Lessons & Websites
All Useful IELTS Writing Lessons & Websites

This post covers all IELTS Writing lessons on IELTS Material website, including: IELTS Writing......

Useful IELTS Reading Articles, Website Resources & Material for Academic & General Training
Useful IELTS Reading Articles, Website Resources & Material for Academic & General Training

IELTS Reading Resources Besides doing exercises from reading practice tests from Cambridge IELTS Series,......

High Scoring IELTS Speaking Model Answers with Audio (Based on Past Papers)
High Scoring IELTS Speaking Model Answers with Audio (Based on Past Papers)

What could be better than preparing yourself for your exam by reading model answers......

Ace the IELTS : IELTS General Module - How to Maximize your Score (3rd edition)
Ace the IELTS : IELTS General Module – How to Maximize your Score (3rd edition)

This excellent self-study book for intense IELTS preparation in a few weeks is designed......

Advanced Vocabulary word List for IELTS
Advanced Vocabulary word List for IELTS

Advanced Vocabulary List for IELTS learners to Score Band 7.5 or Higher IELTS vocabulary......

IELTS Magazine - Week 1 (PDF)
IELTS Magazine – Week 1 (PDF)

IELTS Magazine is our brand new project on our official IELTS blog (ieltsmaterial.com), which......

IELTS Writing Recent Actual Tests in 2018 & Band 8.0+ Sample Answers (Updating)
IELTS Writing Recent Actual Tests in 2018 & Band 8.0+ Sample Answers (Updating)

Read IELTS Writing Actual Tests & Band 8.0+ Samples around the world to be......

IELTS Speaking Lessons
IELTS Speaking Lessons

This post contains useful links to the best IELTS speaking lessons/tips/books/practice tests/actual tests/sample answer...

100 IELTS Speaking Topics Part 1 Questions and Answers 2019
100 IELTS Speaking Topics Part 1 Questions and Answers 2019

IELTS Speaking Part 1 Topics Questions and Answers (Jan -May 2020) Check out the......

IELTS Speaking Recent Actual Tests (September - December 2020) & Suggested Answers
IELTS Speaking Recent Actual Tests (September – December 2020) & Suggested Answers

IELTS Speaking Test Part 1 Question and Answers In the following page, you will......

Looking for free study abroad counseling?