The Scientific Method Reading Answers
The Academic passage ‘The Scientific Method’ is a reading passage that appeared in an IELTS Test. Read the passage below and answer questions 29-40. Beyond the questions, you will find the answers along with the location of the answers in the passage and the keywords that prove the answers.
The Scientific Method
|29||iv||Paragraph C states that the myth of ‘scientific method’ is that it is ‘inductive’. It means that the ‘formulation of scientific theory starts with the basic, raw evidence of the senses’, that is, simple, unbiased, unprejudiced ‘observation’. Hence, the answer is iv (Explaining the inductive method).|
|30||vii||Paragraph D provides how hypotheses are helpful to science. They ‘provide the initiative and incentive for the inquiry’ and ‘influence the method’ (role of hypotheses). Hence, the answer is vii (The role of hypotheses in scientific research).|
|31||iii||In paragraph E, the writer says that hypotheses arise by guesswork, or by inspiration. So, after being formulated, they ‘can and must be tested rigorously, using the appropriate methodology’. Hence, the answer is iii (The testing of hypotheses).|
|32||v||In paragraph F, the writer tells the reader that one might ‘have some idea’ (anticipate) of what their ‘results’ are ‘before collecting data’. He continues to say that there are ‘no scientists in existence’ ‘who really wait until they have all the evidence’ (anticipates results). Hence, the answer is v (Anticipating results before data is collected).|
|33||vi||In paragraph G, the writer says that ‘scientific method’ is not only ‘inductive’ but also that the ‘hypothetico-deductive method proceeds in a step-by-step, inevitable fashion’ (how research is done). This method ‘describes the logical approach’ to much research work. This is ‘much more holistic’ (involving guesses, reworkings, corrections, blind alleys and inspiration in the deductive as well as the hypothetical component) than is ‘immediately apparent’ from ‘reading the final thesis or published papers’ (how it is reported). Hence, the answer is vi (How research is done and how it is reported).|
|34||B||In paragraph B, the writer says that, ‘It is essential that ‘you, as an intending researcher, understand the
difference between these two interpretations of the research
process’ so that ‘you do not become discouraged or begin to suffer
from a feeling of ‘cheating’ or not going about it the right way’’ (advice on how to continue the work without being distracted). The second person ‘you’ is adding to the fact that the writer directly addresses the readers. Hence, the answer is B .
|35||F||In paragraph F, the writer says, ‘So don’t worry if you have some idea of what your results will tell you before you even begin to collect data’ (advice on the fact that anticipating results is not wrong) to the readers/researchers. The second person ‘you’ is adding to the fact that the writer directly addresses the readers Hence, the answer is F .|
|36||YES||In paragraph A, Medawar argues that ‘Karl Popper’ in his ‘book,‘The Logic of Scientific Discovery’ (1972, 3rd edition)’ says that the ‘nature of scientific method is hypothetico-deductive’ and not inductive. Hence, the statement agrees with the information and the answer is yes.|
|37||NO||In paragraph E, the writer mentions that if the ‘predictions turn out to be correct’ (fulfilled) then your ‘hypothesis has been supported’ and ‘may be retained until such time’ as some ‘further test shows it not to be correct’. Hence, the statement contradicts the information and the answer is no.|
|38||NOT GIVEN||In paragraph D, it is mentioned that ‘all scientific work’ of an experimental or exploratory nature ‘starts with some expectation’, which is called hypothesis. In the paragraph, it is added that hypotheses ‘arise by guesswork, or by inspiration’. But, nowhere in the passage, it is remarked that many people carry out research in a mistaken way. Hence, the answer is not given.|
|39||YES||In paragraph G, the writer points out that ‘scientific method’ is ‘not only inductive (which we have seen is incorrect) ‘but also the hypothetico-deductive
method.The hypothetico-deductive method ‘describes the logical approach to much research work’ (describing research). This is much more holistic than ‘reading the final thesis or published papers’. Therefore, it is justified to say that ‘scientific method’ may more usefully be thought of as a way of writing up research rather than as a way of carrying it out.’ Hence, the statement agrees with the information and the answer is yes.
|40||D||The main idea of the passage is how the research process is carried out. In various paragraphs, the writer discusses ideas like ‘scientific method is hypothetico-deductive’, advises that one should ‘not become discouraged or begin to suffer from a feeling of ‘cheating’ or not going about it the right way’, explains that ‘all scientific work starts with some expectation about the outcome’ and there is no need to worry about that. Moreover, it is added that hypotheses ‘may arise by guesswork, or by inspiration’, but having been formulated they can and ‘must be tested rigorously, using the appropriate methodology’. Although the writer mentions that the ‘hypothetico-deductive method might describes the ‘logical approach’ to much research work, but he continues to say that it ‘does not describe the psychological behaviour that brings it’ hinting at the fact that he believes that scientific research should include both the types of method/behaviour to get an all round view of the works done. Hence, the answer is D (to help PhD students by explaining different conceptions of the research process).|
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